What is management? Following understanding, function, element, style, type, and characteristics
Definition of Management
Management is very important for life organized and needed to carry out all forms of the organization. Good management is the backbone of a successful organization. Managing life means solving something to achieve life goals and manage an organization means resolving something with and through other people to achieve its goals.
Some people see management as a late-modern conceptualization in the sense of the final modernity. On the terms it cannot have a pre-modern history.
However, others detected thought-like management among the ancient Sumerian traders and ancient Egyptian pyramid builders. The owner of the slave for centuries faces problems in exploiting / motivating existing workers but sometimes not excited or stubborn and they do a measurable surveillance system.
The emergence of codification of double entries bookkeeping (1494) provides tools for management assessment, planning and control that indicates management began to be known.
- An organization is more stable if members have the right to express their differences and resolve their conflict in it.
- While one person can start an organization, the organization will last a long time when it is set, especially if it has many people and when many desires to defend it
- A weak manager can follow a strong, but the weak cannot maintain authority.
With changes in the workplace of the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries, the theory and military practice contributed to managing new factories through good management
Given the scale of commercial operations that increase and lack of mechanical records before the industrial revolution, it makes sense for most of the company owners at the time to run management functions by and for themselves.
But with the greater and the complexity of the organization, the difference between the owner (individuals, industrial dynasties or shareholder groups) and everyday managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually become more general.
The faction function consists of coordination, reporting, and budgeting, and therefore the control function can be divided into these three separate functions.
Luther Gulick created the word posdcorb, which generally represents the initials of these seven management functions, namely:
- P stands for planning or planning
- for organizing or organizing
- S for staff
- D to direct or direct,
- CO for co-ordination or coordination
- R for reporting or reporting
- B for budgeting or budgeting.
However, planning, organizing, staff’s determination, directing and controlling is a broadly recognized management function.
Future-oriented planning and determining the direction of the organization. This is a rational and systematic way to make today’s decision that will affect the future of the organization or company.
It is a kind of review to an organized future and also corrective improvement that also involves future predictions and efforts to control events. Involves the ability to predict the impact of current actions in the future in the future.
Peter Drucker has defined planning as follows:
“Planning is a sustainable process to make entrepreneurial decisions today systematically and with the best knowledge of their future, systematically regulates the efforts needed to implement this decision and measure the results of this decision on expectations through organized and systematic feedback”.
Effective planning programs combine the influence of external and internal factors. External factors are a lack of resources; Both capital and material, general economic trends are so far involved interest rates and inflation, dynamic technological advancements, increasing government regulations regarding the interests of the community, an unstable international political environment, etc.
Internal factors that influence planning are limited growth opportunities because of saturation that requires diversification, changes in work patterns, more complex organizational structures, decentralization, etc.
Organizing requires a formal structure of authority and direction and the flow of authority through where work subdivisions are defined, regulated and coordinated so that each part is related to other parts integrated and coherent to achieve the specified objectives.
According to Henry Fayol,
“Organizing business means providing everything that is useful or its function, namely raw materials, equipment, capital, and personnel”.
Thus the organization function involves determining the activities that need to be done to achieve the company’s goals, assign this activity to the right personnel, and delegate the authority needed to carry out this activity in a coordinate and cohesive. Therefore, the organization function is related to:
- Identify tasks that must be done and group it whenever needed
- Assign these tasks to personnel while defining their authority and responsibilities.
- Delegate this authority to this employee
- Build relationships between authority and responsibility
- Coordinate all activities
Staff’s determination is a function to recruit and maintain a suitable workforce for companies both at managerial and non-managerial levels. This involves the process of recruitment, training, development, compensation and evaluation of employees and maintains this workforce with the right incentives and motivation. Because human elements are the most vital factors in the management process, it is important to recruit the right personnel.
According to Kootz & O’Donnell,
“Managerial function in determining staff involves managing organizational structures through selection, assessment & development of appropriate and effective personnel to fill the role designed in the structure”.
This function is even more important because people differ in intelligence, knowledge, skills, experience, physical condition, age and attitude, and this complicates function. Therefore, management must understand, in addition to technical and operational competencies, sociological and psychological structures of labor.
Directing functions related to leadership, communication, motivation, and supervision so that employees do their activities in a way that is as efficient as possible, to achieve the desired goals.
Leadership elements involve the issuance of instructions and guide subordinates about procedures and methods. Communication must be two-way open so that information can be submitted to subordinates and feedback received from them.
Motivation is very important because high-motivated people show excellent performance with fewer directives than superiors. Monitoring subordinates will lead to sustainable progress reports and convince the boss that direction is being carried out correctly.
The control function consists of activities carried out to ensure that events do not deviate from previous plans. The activity consists of setting standards for work performance, measuring performance and comparing it to this standing standard and take corrective action when and when needed, to improve any irregularities.
According to Koontz & O’Donnell,
“Control is the measurement & correction of subordinate performance activities to ensure that the purpose and plan of the desired company to get it is achieved”.
5m element in management
5M is a management element that illustrates how managers in the manufacturing environment obtain and distribute resources to achieve business goals. Here are 5m that you must know in the management element:
Manpower (Personnel or Workforce)
Labor refers to human resources that are committed to implementing existing or new marketing strategies. This can then be divided into certain HR assets, which can be directly associated with certain strategies, but which can also include indirect assets.
For example, certain ‘labor’ assets can be an advertising agent used to send communication campaigns. Direct assets can also be time spent by sales force to follow up on the direction of the same campaign.
Indirect labor assets can be in the form of time spent by the marketing team for certain campaigns, which in practice may be difficult to measure.
This element is a supply chain that supports marketing and management strategies today and the future. This point is to consider the extent of the supply chain in a raw chart to add value to strategies that can also evaluate the specific production materials used in producing products that make up the basis of the management strategy itself.
The machine is a physical asset dedicated to helping to facilitate management to make products. This also applies to CRM systems to certain equipment such as servers, software, etc. in the office.
Time may be the most valuable asset and require a review of the management planning process, and plan time as effectively as possible. For example, how long did you bring new products to the market? How responsiveness organizations on competitive pressure?
The last element of 5m is finance. Management see the marketing and financial budget to make planning better and achieve the goal that is also set together
Good management style
A visionary manager communicates the purpose and direction believed by his employees, who convinced his team to work hard to carry out his vision.
After determining the vision of their team and a comprehensive strategy, visionary managers usually let their employees work according to their own provisions, as long as they are productive. The manager will only check their team to make sure they are on the right track or to share new insights.
It gives their employees a great sense of autonomy, which needs to be provided by all managers, self-briefing is basic psychological requirements. When humans work on the tasks they are more control, they feel more satisfied and motivated to solve them. Let the inner motives of their employees determine the direction of their work is the best way for managers to increase their team involvement in the office.
Visionary managers are also known to be firm but fair. Their vision is usually set, but they are always open to listen to their employees’ ideas and are willing to change their plans if a good idea is served.
To better carry out their vision, the visionary manager provides a lot of feedback to their employees about their performance and praising them when their performance meets or exceeds expectations.
This type of management style is difficult. It’s important for you to sell your employees with your vision purpose before you expect it to implement it. If not, they will not be inspired to change your vision into reality.
In democratic management, the rules are everything. Managers let their employees participate in the decision-making process because they appreciate the diversity of their team’s ideas, and understand that people are the key to the success of the team.
Democratic managers ultimately approve all decisions, but because their employees are very involved in the decision-making process, their team has many influences in their manager’s decisions.
Employees are very involved in the decision-making process because managers know it makes their team feel valued, increase their morals, and establish healthy relationships and trust each other between the two. It also makes it easier for managers to convince their employees to buy into the team’s vision – after all, they carry out the plan they have made together.
Most employees like this type of management style – this entrusts them with many responsibilities and real jobs, which allow them to use their skills for their full potential.
But when it is poorly run, a democratic management style can be inefficient. Managers who continue to consider decisions even after consulting with their entire team about it can slow progress. And if you want your employees to feel like they are all of your team leaders, you need to make sure they help you make progress. Or they might start thinking you just make an empty appointment.
Transformational manager is innovator. They usually believe in change and growth is the only way to stay in front, so they encourage their employees to pass their comfort zones, making them realize that they are more capable than they think. This motivates employees to continue to improve standards, which lead to improving team performance.
Employees led by transformational managers are usually more dedicated and happy – their managers are constantly challenging them and motivating them with the idea that they can reach their potential if they continue to push themselves. The managers are also right on the side of their employees, doing anything they can to help them get better and successful.
These teams are innovative, so they can adapt to drastic industrial changes. But they can also risk moving too quickly and spread themselves as a sanctes.
Continuously challenging status-quo is very important for innovation and remains in front of the curve, but, as managers who oversee the organization, it is important to know how far you can encourage every employee before they begin to run out of energy.
Just like a sports coach, a training manager strives to improve the long-term professional development of their employees. They have a desire to teach and supervise their employees grow. And they want to deal with short-term failures of their employees, as long as they learn and get better because of them.
The trainer manager motivates their employees with professional development opportunities, such as promotion or more responsibility – this award makes employees thirsty for knowledge, and the development of their steady improves team performance.
By constantly teaching their employees new things and offer career opportunities, coaches can build strong bonds with their employees. But doing this can also create a poisonous cruel environment for their team’s relationships.
As a coach, you have two main focus: oversee your individual development of your employees and unite your team. The best team is the most united team, and an employee experiences the most professional growth when the coach and their teammates invest in their development.
Bad management style
Autocratic management is the worst management approach. Employees at the peak of hierarchies hold all the power, make decisions without collaborating or telling their subordinates. And after they tell them what to do, they expect acceptance and execution immediately, without question.
If one of their employees does not follow orders, they will punish them by driving them away or threaten their work, or may openly embarrass them in front of their colleagues. Fear, guilt, and shame is the main motivational weapon of autocratic managers.
The autocratic manager is also a monster – they oversee every employee to ensure they are obedient, allowing a little or no flexibility at work. Employees do what is ordered, and the manager does not want to hear their feedback. They see their behavior as a means of ending large financial success.
But the team and companies led by autocratic managers usually do not achieve financial success because they cannot innovate. The same thing, few people think, which leads to groupthinks and stagnant ideas. There will never be a development of ideas.
The autocratic management style allows managers to make decisions very quickly, but employees do not like to work under it.
This is also one of the most ineffective management styles: less developed employees feel overwhelmed – they will not get any assistance – and the most skilled employees cannot let their talents shine in such a rigid environment. Professional growth Everyone is hampered.
Another problem with the autocratic manager is that they don’t even try to convince their employees to support their vision. They only force them to do it. But what they don’t understand is that even though coercion may succeed in the short term, it will not survive in the long run.
Nobody likes to be controlled. And if people don’t know why they support the company’s vision, the spirit of work will decrease, which leads to low-quality work and a high level of employee change.
2. Inhibiting it
Managers who serve prioritize people and assignments. They prioritize their employees’ well-being of their team results, so they can foster a harmonious relationship with their employees and make them as possible.
They do everything they can to support and encourage their team, and, in return, they hope their employees are motivated to work hard.
But because managers who inhibit do not prioritize performance and avoid facing their employees, even when they do unfavorable work, there is no pressure to succeed. This can make employees satisfied, leading to ordinary work or even those who do not meet the qualifications.
The manager who is also possible to spend too much time for team bonds than work, which can make employees frustrated oriented. They will feel like they cannot do their full potential because they have to spend a lot of time carrying out an excessive approach.
The Laisez-Faire manager monitors their team’s activities, but they are really hands off – they expect their team to perform up to a certain level even though they do not proactively help or check their employees.
Employees led by Laissez-Faire managers hold all the authority of decision-making, do whatever they want with minimal intervention or without intervention.
But overall, the team hardly has guidance or vision. Employees may feel unworked, so they cannot achieve anything appropriate. This is the most unwanted and ineffective management style because without any guidance or vision, most employees feel ignored.
Transactional managers use incentives and gifts – such as bonuses and stock options – to motivate their employees to carry out their orders. Their motto is “if you do this for me, I will do this for you.”
But psychological research tells us that extrinsic motivation, such as financial rewards, is not effective in the long term and even reduces the intrinsic motivation of your employees to succeed at work.
After a while, rewarding employees who are intrinsically motivated by external incentives triggering the circle of self-perception.
Employees will base their attitude about their motivation at work from their behavior at work and make them think that they are motivated to succeed because their managers reward them with several stock options and not because they have a desire for the team’s mission.
Universal: All organizations, whether it is looking for profit or not, they need management, to manage their activities. Therefore it is universal.
Objective oriented: Every organization is formed with a predetermined goal and management helps in achieving these goals on time, and smoothly.
Sustainable Process: This is a sustainable process that tends to survive as long as the organization exists. This is needed in every field of organization whether it is production, human resources, finance or marketing.
Multi-dimensional: Management is not limited to people’s administration, but also manages work, processes and operations, which makes it multidisciplinary activity.
Group activities: An organization consists of different members who have needs, hopes and different beliefs. Everyone joins organizations with different motifs, but after being part of their organization works to achieve the same goal. This requires supervision, teamwork, and coordination, and in this way, management is a picture.
Dynamic Functions: An organization exists in a business environment that has various factors such as social, political, law, technology and economics. Small changes to these factors will affect organizational growth and performance. So, to overcome this change management formulates strategies and implement it.
Intangible power: Management cannot be seen or touched but one can feel its existence, in the way organizational functions.
Precisely, all function, activities and organizational processes are interconnected with each other. And is a management task to unite them in such a way that they help in achieving the desired results.
Type of management
In addition to having many styles, in the management business also has many types. This is the most common type of management.
1. Strategic management
Strategic management sees the formation and execution of the overall strategy of the organization with the aim of fostering and maintaining competitive advantage. Strategic management is an executive function that can report to the owner of the company.
2. Sales Management
Management for sales, from a team and individually.
3. Marketing management
Management of marketing strategies, products, brands, and promotions.
4. Public relations
Manage communication between organizations and the public.
5. Operation management
Production management of goods and services. Operational management is a broad field that describes everything from manufacturing management to retail management.
6. Supply chain management
Manage the process of transferring products or services from suppliers to customers.
7. Procurement management
Manage the acquisition of goods and services from external sources.
8. Financial Management & Accounting
Managing processes and financial teams and accounting.
9. Human Resource Management
Responsible for interesting, recruiting, training, providing compensation, rewarding and managing employee performance. Human resources put a key role in forming and overseeing organizational culture.
10. Information Technology Management
Managing teams and information technology processes.
11. R & D management
Process management and research team & development.
12. Engineering Management
Manage technical applications for business solutions. For example, new product development, manufacturing, and construction.
13. Program management
Program management is the ongoing management of the project portfolio.
14. Project management
Project management is planning, organization and project control.
15. Risk management
Risk management is a discipline for identifying, assessing, and controlling the chances of the goals and processes will have negative consequences.
16. Change management
Change management applies a structured approach to business change. The purpose of change management is to help organizations and teams make a smooth transition to the target country.
17. Quality management
Quality planning management, control, guarantee and improvement
18. Innovation management
Management of innovation processes such as strategies, research & development or organizational changes.
19. Design management
Design process management such as new product design.
20. Facility management
Management of facilities such as offices and data centers.
Management is science and art to unite people to achieve desired goals and goals by coordinating and integrating all available and effective resources.
Management science is one of the most difficult jobs in the world of work. There is a reason why we all have at least one annoying manager right?
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