Understanding planning: characteristics, goals, and types
As we already know together that planning is a very important part and cannot be separated from management activities. So, what exactly means or understanding of planning? Then, what kind of types of planning?
Well, in this article, let’s discuss completely a number of things related to planning, including the meaning of planning or planning, whether it is in terms of planning in general and also in the opinion of several experts, goals and functions of planning, as well as various types of planning.
Well, if you want to find out more about planning, it is recommended to read the entire contents of this article until it is completely finished.
So, the definition of planning is generally an attempt to determine the various things that want to be achieved or goals in the future and also to determine a variety of stages that are needed to achieve this goal.
The definition of planning can also be interpreted as a form of coordinated activities to achieve a particular goal and also within a certain period of time. Thus, in planning there will be various testing activities in several directions of achievement, analyzing all uncertainty, assessing capacity, determining the purpose of achievement, and also determining the steps in achieving.
Simply put, the definition of planning is a process in thinking logically and rational decision making before carrying out various actions to be done. This will help each party in projecting their future and decide the best way to deal with situations that will occur in the future.
Some experts also say that the definition of planning is one of the most important management functions, which in the planning itself has activities in explaining organizational goals, making strategies, and also developing organizational work plans.
So, the definition of planning is an initial stage of an organization’s activities related to the achievement of organizational goals.
Understanding of planning according to experts
In order for all of us to understand what the understanding of the plan itself is, it is better to see the opinions of the experts below:
- Erly Suandy.
Erly Suandy argues that the definition of planning is a process in determining organizational goals and also present it more clearly with various strategies, tactics, and operations needed to achieve the main objectives of the organization as a whole.
- Barbara Becker
Becker explained that the meaning of planning is a rational way in preparing a better future.
- Jacqueline Alder
Alder explained that the definition of planning is a process in determining what really really wants to be achieved in the future and also determines the necessary steps to achieve these objectives.
- John Douglas
Douglas said that the definition of planning is a continuous process in terms of study, making goals and suggestions, and implement and evaluate or monitor it.
- George Steiner
Whereas Stainer argues that the definition of planning is a process in starting various objectives, strategy limits, policies, and also a very detailed plan in achieving it, organizational achievements to implement decisions and also include performance reviews and feedback in terms of recognition of new plan cycles.
In planning itself there are various characteristics that distinguish them with other management derivative functions. Some of the characteristics of management are:
1. Managerial function
Planning is a managerial function most the first and also most important in providing the basis for other functions of management, namely staffing, direction, organizing, and controlling, because the scope of the plan is made.
2. Objective oriented
Planning will be more focused in terms of explaining the company’s goals, identifying alternative actions, and deciding various action plans appropriately, to achieve the company’s main objectives.
In this case, the Pervasive Definition is a plan that must be present in all segments and needed at all levels in the organization. Although the scope in it is very diverse in the level and department.
4. Sustainable process
Plans made within a certain period of time, such as one month, one quarter, one year, etc. After the period of time was completed, a new plan was needed with various considerations and conditions and conditions today and in the future later.
For this reason, planning is a process carried out on an ongoing basis because it is made, carried out and carried out by other people’s plans too.
5. Intellectual process
Planning is a process of mental exercise in which involves the application of logic, thinking, estimating, and imagining other things smarter and innovating.
In a planning process, we can peek at the future. This includes projects the future, analyzes and also predices it, so the company will be ready to face the future more effectively.
7. Decision making
Decisions can be made related to alternative actions that can be done to achieve goals. The choice that can be selected must be the best among all the existing choices, which have many advantages and also a little profit.
Basically, planning is useful for helping various processes of taking a decision that is best and most in accordance with the company’s main objectives. In the process of implementation, the manager must be able to answer questions 5W and 1H, namely:
- What: What are the purposes to be achieved by the company?
- Why: Why is this a company destination?
- Where: Where is the location of the right to achieve that goal?
- When: When does work have to be resolved to achieve this goal?
- Who: Who are the right people to do work related to the company’s goals?
- How: How is the most appropriate way to do work in an effort to achieve company goals.
So in essence, planning has a function to achieve the level of effectiveness and the company’s operational efficiency. So, later efforts can be made to identify various obstacles, make corrections related to irregularities quickly, so the company can run better.
Each company certainly has its own purpose, and certainly planning prepared will vary. But basically, the company’s goal in planning is as follows:
- In order to anticipate and also adapt to various changes that might occur.
- In order to provide direction to administrators or non-administrators to be able to do their duties in accordance with the plans that have been made.
- Avoid or minimize various potentials related to overlapping and waste in terms of implementation of work.
- Establish a certain standard which will later be able to be used in work, so that it will facilitate the supervision or monitoring process.
Types of planning
In general, planning is divided into three, which is based on the level, based on the term, and also based on the scope.
1. Planning based on levels
- The master plan or master plan, is a plan that more emphasis on the company’s policy in which the goals are listed in a wider period and scope.
- Operational Planning or Operational Plan, is a plan that emphasizes the guidelines or instructions in terms of implementing various company programs.
- Day to Day Planning or Daily Plan, is the planning in which there are various activities that are more routine.
2. Planning based on the period
- Long-term plans or long term planning, is a plan made and will remain valid within 10 to 25 years.
- Medium planning plans or medium range planning, is a plan made and will remain valid within 5 to 4 years
- Short-term plan or short range planning, is a plan made and will remain valid in a period of 1 year
3. Planning based on scope
- Strategic plans or strategic planning, is a plan that has an explanation related to policy in a long period of time and the time of implementation is also long. Usually, this type of planning is very difficult to modify.
- Tactical Plan or Tactical Planning, is a form of planning that has a more short explanation, and it is easier to adjust its activities during its objectives.
- Integrated planning plans or integrated planning, is a form of planning that has a thorough and more integrated explanation.
Based on the explanation above, we can draw the conclusion that the definition of planning is one of the functions of very fundamental management and in it involves making decisions related to the company to do, when to do, how to do it, and anyone who does it.
The definition of planning is also an intellectual process in which it will determine the purpose of an individual, organization, or company, and also develop it into various actions to achieve that goal.
So, it is hoped that companies that have done carefully planning will be able to get profits or profits and make it easier for companies to achieve its main goals.
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