Poka Yoke, the concept of production management that can prevent errors
Poka-Yoke is a standard method carried out by the Toyota Production System (TPS) to prevent a simple error made by human labor or human error.
TPS itself is a standard management system carried out to regulate manufacturing and logistics which is indeed developed by Toyota car companies.
To be clearer, let’s discuss completely the Yoke Poka below.
The word poka-yoke comes from Japanese which means preventing simple errors that are often done because of human carelessness. Careless itself is a careful attitude done by humans in certain conditions.
If translated one by one, then Poka is Poka Poka Misu (間違) which means is a mistake that occurs because of carelessness. While Yoke is Yokeru (避ける) which means avoiding.
In Western culture, this concept is known as mistake-proofing or idiot-proofing or it can also be foolproofing. This concept is more often assessed as a concept than the procedure. For this reason, the application starts by preventing errors that often occur in the work area.
For this reason, this concept is not done step by step such as doing a job such as procedures and work instructions. This yoke poka will function very maximally when it is used to prevent an error, not in the invention related to an error.
History of the standard method of poka-yoke
In the beginning, the concept of Poka-Yoke was introduced by Shigeo Shingo around the 1960s, this method was then adopted into the Toyota Production System. Shigeo Shingo himself was an engineer from Matsushita Manufacturing which later became part of the Toyota Production System.
Initially, this method has an abaka-yoke name, which means “fool-proofing” or “idiot-proofing”, until it was finally converted into a poka-yoke. This is because the previous name has a name that is less suitable or too rough, then reformed again he said to be “poka-yoke”
Shigeo then becomes a yoke poka into three types of methods, namely as follows:
Poka-Yoke is done by analyzing and also identifying product shapes, color size, and other physical features of the product
Fixed-Value or Constant Number method:
This type of concept is done by ensuring whether some activities or movements that must be done are well running. This method will provide a warning to the operator if they have not carried out the activity.
Methods of Moving (Sequence)
This type is done by ensuring that each required process has gone well.
Poka-Yoke is more functioning to prevent mistakes and not to find an error that has happened.
Examples are operator negligence caused by fatigue or saturation so that this Yoke poka will be very useful to provide the solution to prevent these errors.
Yoke Poka Concept Approach
In implementing this concept, there are at least 2 approaches that are most widely used in the concept of poka-yoke, namely:
1. Prevent Mistakes.
The Yoke Poka Approach “Prevent Mistake” is an approach to prevent an error or a quality problem that hasn’t happened. There are two most widely used methods on Prevent Mistake, namely:
- Control Method: Monitoring Method
- WARNING METHOD: WARNING METHOD
2. Detect Mistakes
In contrast to the previous points, the “Detect Mistake” approach is an approach made after a mistake or quality problems already occurred. The most widely used way in this approach is Contact Method, Fixed Value Method, and also Motion Step Mistake.
Yoke Poka Design
In its design, there is a concept called “three basic poka-yoke functions, the three concepts are the concept of control, shutdown, and warning.
Control is a supervision function or process control to prevent errors or damage to flow or continue at the next stage. While the shutdown is a condition stop when doing work if it is detected a mistake or damage.
While the warning is a function that gives a warning if there are conditions of abnormalities, errors, or damage.
Preparation for Application of Yoke Poka
There are several steps to do in preparing the application of Yoke Poka.
- First, you must explain the form of damage or potential damage to be searched for the solution, if necessary, make ratio data or percentage of damage and problems that have occurred.
- Then, do the identification of the process that occurs in the damage.
- Write completely related to work steps in the process that will be done by the analysis process.
- Then, identify each work step or condition that can cause damage or work errors, such as the environment, measurement tools, and work equipment. If necessary, try to use the formula solution problem, such as 5 W 1 H, or brainstorm so you can find the root of the problem.
Clearly and detail the work step in the process that will be analyzed.
- Look for ideas to make a concept or poka-yoke equipment, which you will later use in solving the problem. Do also benchmarking or pay attention to other yoke pokes that have already been there so you can get a new idea.
- Do the effectiveness of the effectiveness after completing a Yoke Poka Tool Application, the month needs to repair or perfect the Yoke poka you have made.
Yoke Poka Users
In a company, every employee should be or individuals can do this in their respective work areas.
Why? Because this device should be able to be used by everyone or employees, it is easy to apply, it does not require continuous attention from the operator, is affordable, and can provide feedback or improvement and prevent quickly and also right.
Benefits of Yoke Poka
Several benefits can be felt from applying this concept. These benefits can be felt from the side of the employee and also the company, namely:
1. Benefits for employees
In the business world, there will be a lot of problems that cause it from the human or ordinary side we call Human Error. This will have an impact on the company’s overall performance and will also provide psychological effects in terms of employees who do something unintentionally.
With this human error decision, the workers will certainly be considered as a source of problems that will later affect the level of psychology and fall their work spirit.
For this reason, this method can be a solution to prevent an error before it happens.
2. Benefits for the company
In terms of the company, applying poka-yoke can save employee labor to carry out an inspection or product inspection because it has been replaced with a prevention system through this concept.
In addition, the company can also minimize the existence of defective products or defects out of the production process, so that it will improve the quality of production as a whole.
Based on this, we can conclude that this concept is indeed able to prevent losses in the company and also able to increase the company’s profits.
Thus the complete explanation of our poka-yoke, so we can conclude that basically, poka-yoke is a standard method carried out by the Toyota Production System (TPS) to prevent a simple error made by human labor or human error.
For those of you who want to apply Yoke Poka in his business, then you do various ways that we have previously discussed above. With the lack of error rates in your company, the production level and the company’s activities will also produce abundant profits.
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