Marketing environment: understanding, type, and aspects that influence it

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Marketing environment: understanding, type, and aspects that influence it

One important element in a marketing process is the environment. Because to maximize activity, the environment will be a very influential factor. The condition of an environment will be a parameter in another condition to be adjusted to the expected conditions so that existing potential can be maximized and absorbed to meet certain objectives.

Understanding of the marketing environment according to experts

The environment is a condition around which has uniqueness, differences, characteristics, potential, threats, and benefits, where the condition will give birth to reciprocity that matches what happens.

While marketing is an activity carried out to fulfill desires and also needs with the exchange process. The most important factor in the concept of marketing science is demand, desire, product, needs, transactions, exchanges, and markets.

Some experts explain that the understanding of the marketing environment is as follows:

  • Philip and Duncan. Marketing is a thing that includes all steps needed or used to place a product into the hands of consumers.
  • Nystrom. Marketing is a distribution activity of goods or services from the hands of producers to consumers.
  • According to Kotler. Marketing is a social step that includes individuals and groups to obtain what they need and want by giving birth or offering products freely at prices that are worth the other party.
  • Stanton. Marketing is something that covers all systems that aim to determine prices to promote and also distribute goods and services that satisfy the needs of actual and potential buyers.

Based on the opinion of the expert above, it can be concluded that marketing is a combination of interrelated activities to obtain information about consumer needs with the creation, exchange, and product offerings or services that have value and to develop promotional activities, services, distribution, to necessities Consumers can be fulfilled well on a particular advantage.

It should be underlined that the environment and marketing are two things that are interconnected. Both of these will be integrated with previously set goals by groups or individuals.

While the definition of the marketing environment is the perpetrators and various forces that are outside marketing that can affect the ability of business on a company in achieving its objectives.

There are four layers of marketing environment over a product, namely:

  • Market environment. Is a place for transactions between buyers and sellers as a whole.
  • Organizational environment. It is the closest environment for a product, such as divisions, departments, offices, and various other company channels.
  • Macro-environment. It is a place that consists of various strengths and institutions that have relationships and can influence transactions that occur between the market and the company. There are also several components in it, namely the economy, technology, culture, and local government policies.
  • Extra environment. Is a difficult environment for estimated by the company.
  • Internal marketing environment

The internal marketing environment is all internal activities companies that can be controlled to achieve goals and run marketing strategies. The marketers will control or rules for the various activities.

The internal environment has more universal properties and covers all functions carried out in every business activity. There are 3 aspects of marketing and non-marketing functions in internal environmental understanding, namely:

  • The aspect of the organizational resources in which includes wealth, abilities, and also market positions.
  • The human aspect is the foundation of the company’s strength, but it can also be a threat to companies if it is not able to be managed properly.
  • Aspects of management tools and technology in which include organizational systems, information, and various operational techniques. The technology system can provide strong strength for the company but must spend a few investment costs.
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External market environment

The external market environment is all marketing activities carried out outside the control of the marketers. These influences will force marketers to be able to adjust the direction and also strategies to continue to struggle during an erratic environment.

The external market environment is divided into two, namely the micro and macro market environment.

1. Micro marketing environment

This micro marketing environment is divided into several aspects of the company’s support, namely:

Provider aspects

Aspects of the provider or supplier are a liaison that is very much needed in the entire value of giving consumers and can contribute in terms of resources needed by the company to produce services or goods.

In this case, the company manager must observe the condition of the supplier and monitor the development of the price. If from the two things there is an imbalance, it is certain that there will be additional fees and will have an impact on the price increase to achieve the company’s goals.

Marketing aspects

In this point, there are 3 market characteristics, namely:

  • Have interest, because of the need or desire for an item or service.
  • The level of ability to buy because it has objects that are valuable like money or the like to be exchanged for the items that are being needed.
  • There is access to purchases and beings to launch the exchange.

In this case, the company’s intermediaries have a role to help companies socialize and also distribute products to consumers. The intermediary includes resellers, marketing service agents, distributor companies, financial intermediaries, etc.

At this point, the company must pay attention and provide the best service in terms of shipping, storage, and various other factors that can affect the company’s success, such as shipping, security, and shipping costs.

Customer aspects

Customer aspects can be in the form of consumer markets in which there are individuals or groups of households that hire services or buy goods to use or consume as needed. In this case, marketers must be more observant in seeing consumer reactions to changes, such as changes in prices for a product.

In this case, the customer can be the manufacturer’s market and also the reseller market that buys company products to be resold to benefit. In addition, customers can also be in the form of government or international markets.

Competitor aspects

In addition to the various things already mentioned above, the marketers must pay attention to the nature of competition that occurs in the market, which companies must compete using marketing strategies that are following the type and nature of the competition.

In addition to the things above, marketers also have to pay attention to the nature of competition, where companies must compete by establishing marketing strategies according to the properties and types of competition.

Community aspects

Community aspects are any group that has actual or potential interests that can influence the company’s ability to achieve success, such as the government, financial society, local and general, media, and people from the company’s internal.

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2. Macro Marketing Environment

The macro-environment is a wider community force and can affect the micro marketing environment of a company that influences marketers indirectly. There are 5 types of macro environments, namely:

Demographic environment

Demographics are a study of the human population that is assessed based on location, age, work, density, gender, and various other statistics.

Demography is one of the factors that have a major influence on marketing activities because marketing activities always involve the community, and from there it will form a market with the condition of having money and the desire to spend the money.

For this reason, a marketer must be active in monitoring demographics.

Economic environment

The economic environment will affect the purchasing power factor and expenditure patterns of consumers. Consumer purchasing power is based on income, price, savings, and credit at the time that is happening. Marketers must understand the main tendency in terms of community income, and must be aware of the changing spending patterns.

Socio-cultural environment

The cultural environment consists of institutions and other forces that can affect the basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behavior of local communities. The development of the community will be followed by the development of the basic value of the community, and usually social values ​​in a culture will be difficult to change.

Even so, it does not mean it cannot be at all to be changed, marketers only need to measure existing changes to be able to make and provide the appropriate and popular products in the community.

Technology environment

The technology environment consists of various forces that affect the latest technology and create products and various new market opportunities.

In this case, marketers must pay attention to various tendencies of technology, namely technological developments, unlimited opportunities, high can hold budgets, increasing regulations, etc.

Political environment

This political environment consists of laws, government agencies, influential suppressors, and personal or organizational limits in society. Some of the main political trends that can influence marketing management are laws that regulate the government, there are changes in the implementation of the law, and the development of public defense groups.

Conclusion

Based on the opinion of the expert above, it can be concluded that marketing is a combination of interrelated activities to obtain information about consumer needs with the creation, exchange, and product offerings or services that have value and to develop promotional activities, services, distribution, to necessities Consumers can be fulfilled well on a particular advantage.

While the definition of the marketing environment is the perpetrators and various forces that are outside marketing that can affect the ability of business on a company in achieving its objectives.

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