Marketing & Ad Structure
Advertising and Marketing Mix
Advertising is part of the promotion mix (promotion mix) and promotion is part of the marketing mix (marketing mix). Advertising is simply defined as a message offering a product aimed at the public through the media (Jefkins, 1997). Another opinion that says that advertising is a form of non-personal communication promotion with a clear sponsor identity through certain channels (channels), for example magazines, newspapers, radio, television and others (Kasali, 1992).
Advertising (advertisment), especially in the modern business world that is growing is considered as a need that is proven to be a level of urgency to support the success of a marketing business. General adversity considerations for the advertisement are:
- To support sales of short-term or long-term products
- In order to overcome competition from both competitor products and their distribution fields.
- Cultivate goodwill and image
- Seizing recognition and showing product excellence
- Seizing the share of mind from consumers
Whereas specifically the existence of advertisements is to:
- Introducing products / services to prospective buyers
- Increase purchases and usage
- Giving the identity of a product through positioning
- Announce changes (in a positive sense) of a product
In general, advertisements are divided into three major sections, namely the head line, illustration and body copy sections. The head line section generally functions as an opening key for placing advertisement positions. Head lines in some cases often act as tag lines, which generally use the structure of popular languages or prokem languages.
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The illustration section on print media advertising plays an important role. Advertising illustrations often act as eye catchers. Eye Catcher is an element that functions to bind the observer’s eye at a certain point. Irrigation is a translation of positioning concepts that cannot be interpreted visually.
Advertising illustration models are generally divided into 2 types, namely concretizing and imagery. Concretizing is a real translation of ideas. Concretizing is based on direct ideas (Shimp, 2003: 202). whereas imagery is a visualization of abstract ideas that do not have a direct ‘representation’ of visual forms. Imagery is done verbally when advertising concepts are difficult to translate.
The third part of the ad is body copy. Body copy generally gives a more detailed explanation of the product to be displayed. The body copy section contains instructions or formulas that are too long when placed in the head line.
The expressions stated in the head line or body copy section generally use 2 types of approaches. First, with CPM (Consumer Procesing Model) and second through HEM (Hedonic Experimental Model). CPM (Consumer Procesing Model) sees consumers as rational, cognitive, systematic, and reasonable in buying a product. The HEM (Hedonic Experimental Model) perspective sees consumer behavior directed by emotions in an effort to achieve fun, fantasy, and feeling (3F) (Shimp, 2003: 180).
Sign in Advertising
The sign in the ad serves to create meaning. Signs are fictional forms that can be felt and represent something to someone in a particular context (Shimp, 2003: 165). The communication process as a sign reading process will be effective if the sender and recipient of the message have the same perceptual field. The process of reading the signs in advertisements generally uses semiotic elements. This process is carried out to create a more objective sign reading space.
The sign relationship in advertisements is more focused on reading visual language (figurative language). The relationship is more like a symbolic relationship. Figurative language involves expressing something with something that is usually used to symbolize other things that are considered related (Shimp, 2003: 173). Figurative languages can be specified in 3 types, namely simile, metaphor, and alegory.
Simile is the use of comparative forms to connect items from several different categories of experience.
Metaphor is the use of other objects that cannot be expressed literally aimed at making abstract ideas real.
Allegory is a broader form of metaphor. Allegory in general is to connect objects in a particular narrative with meaning outside the narration. The use of allegories is often expressed in the form of personification.