Also in 1211, after Genghis Khan captured Huailai in Hebei and Yanqing in Beijing, he chased the Jin army all of the way to the Juyongguan Great Wall. Seeing the cast pass, Khan gave up the idea of attacking without delay, but decided to lure the Jin soldiers out for a field battle. After a few small scale strikes, the Mongol infantrymen threw down their weapons, left their horses and “escaped”. As anticipated, the Jin soldiers on guard left the pass to chase them.
Suddenly, numerous Mongol infantrymen seemed from nearby mountains and surrounded the Jin soldiers, defeated them and captured Juyongguan Pass. After breaching the Juyongguan Great Wall, the Mongol infantrymen ransacked the pass and residents and left fully loaded. In 1213, in need of coming into the Central Plain, the Mongol army took Juyongguan again. After the outdated failure, the Jin army had sealed the north gate with melted iron and set a big area of iron caltrops in front. This time, Genghis Khan led his army southward via a street to Zijingguan, took that weaker guarded pass first, and then attacked Juyongguan from its south gate.
The Juyongguan was recaptured. This one came about in 1216. Genghis Khan ordered his standard Samuhe to threaten the then capital of Jin court, Kaifeng in Henan from the west. Reaching Tongguan Pass of the Great Wall in neighboring Shaanxi for the 1st time, Samuhe prevented it due to its impenetrability. Coming to the pass a second time, he again didn’t attack it directly, but captured its southern barrier, Jinkeng, first and planned to attack Tongguan from the south. The backup army of Jin did not arrive in time and Tongguan was breached under the severe attack of the Mongol army.
In addition, the Mongol army captured many other fortresses along the Great Wall, including Gubeikou and Datong. The Mongol army kept getting in and out of the Central Plain via the Great Wall freely frequently in the course of the later battles, untill they eventually overthrew the Jin Court. Genghis Khan spent five years making thorough preparations for his battle towards the Jin court:1. He defeated the Western Xia to its west, which was an “assistant” to Jin but a threat to the Mongols;2. He defeated the enemies to his north to ensure the safety of his territory;3. He recruited the Jin army which guarded the northwest element of the Jin Great Wall, making the world a military base for attacking Jin;4.
He subverted the Jin garrison infantrymen for his use;5. He accumulated advice on the Jin court from businessmen and envoys. On the opposite side, the Jin emperor didn’t take the Mongols heavily originally and put most of his army forces on the southern border with Southern Song 1127 1279 AD. Also, having fallen into disrepair in many parts, the Great Wall at the moment was not as solid as it used to be. Note: The place names discussed in this article are all current names.