The historical past of the European oil and gas industry reflectslocal as well as global political events, economic constraints and the personalendeavors of individual petroleum geoscientists up to it does thedevelopment of technology and the underlying geology of the region. The firstcommercial oil wells in Europe were drilled in Poland in 1853, Romania in 1857,Germany in 1859 and Italy in 1860. The 23 papers during this volume center around thehistory and heritage of the oil and gas industry in the key Europeanoil generating countries from the earliest onshore drilling to its developmentinto the modern industry that we all know today. The participants chronicle themain events and some of the main avid gamers that shaped the industry in Europe. The volume also marks a few important anniversaries, adding 150 years ofoil exploration in Poland and Romania, the centenary of the drilling of thefirst oil well in the UK and 50 years of oil production from onshore Spain.