As discussed in the second post, the barriers of the advancement of mobile computing are the conflicts among the necessities of better processing power from mobile users and the drawback of network connections, community capacities, network bandwidth, supplies, battery life, etc. And MCC is exactly the solution to those conflicts and the facilitator of mobile computing as a result of MCC transfer the computing and garage from mobile devices to the Cloud, hence, extend battery life, augment the storage capacities and information processing power, and increase the network reliability Dinh et al. , 2013. Taking these merits, MCC introduce new functions of mobile usage, reminiscent of m trade, mobile studying, gaming, m health, mobile video streaming, and etc. Chen, Wu and Vasilakos, 2014.
Firstly, the sufferers are capable with IoT devices, reminiscent of wearables, cellphones, and drugs, which continuously bring together personal data, usually the alerts like blood force and heart rate. The data collected via the portable instruments are sent to and stored at the cloud, where both the patients and doctors can assess. Doctors can display screen and review these data in the health center system, electronic health record EHR system, and provides customised instructions or take emergency actions in response to those data. And patients can review these data via clinical apps on their very own gadgets and manage their health, particularly chronical sicknesses, based on the guidelines from medical doctors. Then increasing data, adding more unstructured advice, are collected by the IoT gadgets and stored in the cloud.
To process and higher realize those data, analytic tools are employed to learn the unstructured languages and extract patterns from the massive data the computing and processing are done on the cloud. Therefore, when attached with the cloud that provides the massive data, the IoT gadgets that assemble sufferers’ data, the application that existing recommendations from medical doctors, and the analytic tools that extract patterns and expect issues, the EHR system is developed into a RTHS, which can give preventive healthcare services before a problem occurs. Information applied sciences IT have supported and facilitated the development and evolvement of the healthcare marketplace because the first large scale adoption of IT to standardise and automate the repeating work in hospitals , e. g. accounting and payroll in the 1950s Biesdorf and Niedermann, 2014. Then second massive IT adoptions emerged when IT was utilised to combine core inner and external process in the 1970s, since when some digital health suggestions programs were built.
And Biesdorf and Niedermann predicted 2014 that the third wave of IT adoption, digital health, now has arrived in healthcare market when more and more patients use digital health amenities. IoHT brings cutting edge opportunities for hospitals by introducing distinctive types of new facilities and re building the relationships between sufferers and hospitals. These new services on one hand, carry higher provider nice as with IoHT, patient can timely and easily obtain the customised medical treatments based on the information accrued from them, on any other hand save time and traveling costs for the sufferers, doctors and in addition hospitals. And like every applied sciences discussed before, reminiscent of mobile computing and IoT, the privacy and knowledge security issues also are the main concerns of IoHT. CVS Health is one the biggest American pharmacy companies, and it announced numerous digital tools in 2015 to deliver adherent and convenient facilities CVS Health, 2015. Imagine, Cathy, a 48 year old woman who looks after her aging father.
Cathy can manage the prescriptions for the entire family via different IoT devices, such as Apple watch and CVS Pharmacy app. The CVS Pharmacy app can send reminder to her dad to take drug treatments, and once her dad doesn’t take drug treatments as required, Cathy will be noticed. Implemented with location based facilities, CVS Pharmacy will notify Cathy if her drugs are ready when she enters a CVS pharmacy. And if Cathy makes any adjustments on her coverage, she will scan the coverage card without delay, no needs of speaking a pharmacist in a actual pharmacy. On technical features, values can be used to mitigate less fascinating program designs.
But in industrial points, values are the reasons why customers acquire a product or service. Value propositions are the statements “of those few points of difference that create a compelling reason for a buyer to choose one market providing relative to competing options” Sarin, 2011. Simply put, a cost proposition is an announcement of the benefits bought out of your product or facilities, and this also is what’s attracting customers. And value proposition is not merely related with the product or carrier itself, but also associated with many factors, corresponding to brand, recognition, environments, and etc. And as shown from the value proposition canvas, value is extremely subjective and is a private issue as all and sundry has various values. For example, a lot of my friends just like the wellness and health apps which record the stairs they walk daily, and one of my chums told me that she enjoying refreshing the ranking of steps daily.
So the step recorder apps have value to them. But for me, I don’t think strolling has any affects on me, and I prefer going for walks than strolling so that it will do endeavor. So the apps that compile going for walks assistance have more value for me. And once in a while value can be found from the assist function but not the most services, for example, I found the vibration functionality of a wearable band quite useful and I think the vibration functionality add values for me. But I truly don’t agree the view that value wouldn’t change with the changing of time and context as time and context are the main elements that contribute to the formation of values.
So I might find the apps that record steps adding value for me in the future, who knows. Software development is a set of dynamic processes, in which as a minimum two forms of changes can be viewed, i. e. the technology adjustments and the area adjustments Blair and Sawyer, 2016. Generally, the expertise adjustments are the facilitator of the software development as new technologies are often useful gizmo to fix the problems and make circumstances better, but how to totally make use and discover the full potentials of the rising technologies is usually a challenge. The word changes can be definitely and negatively stricken by the applied sciences changes in turn.
As the technologies are emerging and the world is endlessly altering, the environments for application development are never static, requiring us to intentionally consider the true necessities from the application design under the dynamic environments. Sometimes, application is constructed as an answer to a difficulty, and the requirements are some situations of the answer preferred from the consumers. To understand clients’ requirements, it is essential to understand the different types of requirement data: known knowns, known unknowns, unknown knows and unknown unknowns Blair and Sawyer, 2016. Personally, I think the purpose of knowing categories of necessities is to decide the genuine requirement, i. e.
establish those tacit, concealed, and take with no consideration requirements, mainly the “unknown knowns”, and to remove the useless requirements which waste human, monetary and time components mainly “known unknowns”. For instance, when designing a medical application of old people, a requirement can be easily ignored is the font size might be bigger but many program take it as a right to use a default font size. Identifying goals is also of significance as application system is naturally goal driven. Goals, described as “an aim that the system should achieve through cooperation of agents in the application to be and in the atmosphere. ” Lapouchnian, 2005, p. 5, are absolutely various from requirements because goals are high level.
Goals don’t want to be constant as different stakeholders have different goals out in their own income. But once in a while comprising goals is challenging but essential when the materials are limited, a stakeholder matrix which evaluates the stakeholders in accordance with their power and interests Milosevic, 2003 could be utilised to determine those key stakeholders and meet their goals first. And the goals don’t want to be complete neither, in order that capability gaps can be found Blair and Sawyer, 2016. For instance, when coming up a medical app, the most goal of the patients is assessing as more as feasible amenities on the platform. The docs might hope to increase the efficiency, and the administrators want easy leadership. And for the young generations, they could prefer well being and fitness amenities while old people might find emergency amenities more important.
To truly understand the consumers’ goal and to better meet their goal, Co design can be utilized. Co design is defined as a method to integrate clients in each stage of the product design processes, especially the design ideation or conception stage Naranjo Bock, 2012. Inviting consumers to join the design can enhance their involvement and encourage them to explicit their true ideas, ultimately serving their goals through the final product. To do that, the fashion designer can hold a co design workshop, by which numerous tools can be used to inspire consumers’ engagements, corresponding to collages, cognitive and context mapping, storyboards, inspiration cards, modelling, paper protyping and sketching and games. Usually, the data gained from the co design is visual or tangible, and in the processes of co design, the connections between users, product and designers are built. For example, crowdsourcing is also co design when people are mostly concerned in the collaborative actions online.
Crowdsourcing is a format of client engagement, starting from “partaking in an online course, gathering photos of butterflies for a citizen technology project, importing old photos for a community historical past project, deciphering sentences from old scanned manuscripts, playing protein folding games to assist scientists discover new ways to fight sicknesses, or engaging in online discussions” Idea, 2013. For example, PepsiCo Inc. launched a chain of new product competitions for DEWmocracy, which encourage customers to design new favour, and new packaging and advertising plan for the favour they design. These actions made a hit: the followers of the social media greater considerably and DEWmocracy left a deep impression in the general public Edgecomb, 2013. Here, IoT, also referred to as the Internet of Everything or Industrial Internet, refers to “a new technology paradigm anticipated as a worldwide community of machines and gadgets capable of interacting with each other” Lee and Lee, 2015. The things in IoT vary from physical objects, corresponding to sensor, to virtual entities, that are “readable, recognizable, locatable, addressable and/or controllable” in the IoT networks Borgia, 2014.
And the actual gadgets are smart because some electronics are embedded to enable seamlessly sensing, computing, communications, and data transfer in the IoT community. Therefore IoT introduces a 6A vision: any user is able to attach with any device to obtain any carrier every time, anyplace via any community Borgia, 2014. IoT blends ideas of Ubiquitous Computing Ubicomp and Ambient Intelligence, and then enhance them Vasseur and Dunkels, 2010. IoT and Ubicomp instruments look similar, but they definitely work in different ways. Coined by Mark Weiser in 1988, Ubicomp, sometimes also known as pervasive computing, is the miniaturisation of gadgets, i. e.
transferring computers from the computers to the encircling environments Blair, and Sawyer, 2016. Personally, I realize the Ubicomp devices as the mini computer systems to execute tasks, however the main functionality of IoT devices is to bring together data, which might be transferred to the data centres. But with the developments of both technologies, the limits of Ubicomp and IoT are an increasing number of vague than before. Actually, I have also tried an IoT gadget these days. I bought a Mi Band, which I think can be both assistance sharing and tracking IoT. Most of my friends use Mi Band to record their jogging steps, however the main reason for my acquire choice is that I wish an affordable and lightweight gadget, instead of taking the cellular phone with me, to record some assistance when going for walks.
Mi Band archives the time, route, speed, and heart rates when I’m jogging, and I found the info is more precise in comparison with other sports record apps, similar to Nike+, as it could distinguish the adjustments pretty slow jogging and jogging although the speeds of them are quite similar. I also found other interesting and practical functions of Mi Band. For instance, it might probably computer screen the slumbering first-class, and my sound asleep data can be updated routinely into the Mi Band app once the Band strategies my cellphone. And I found the vibration notification functions useful Mi Band can notify me of the calls, massages and alarm clock via vibration, because I always have a hard time to get up from bed in the morning and the alarm clock always annoys me a lot, but the vibration is gentler and less aggressive than alarm clock. Stimulated by the tips and conversation technologies, expanding variety of faster, more reliable and less expensive gadgets are available, starting from smartphones, tablets, e book readers to non-public gaming devices. These gadgets are fairly small in size compared with the old heavy machines, corresponding to laptop, enabling their mobility and changing the manner people compute, communicate and live Blair and Sawyer, 2016.
Among various contraptions, mobile phone is greatly followed the folks world wide with nearly 4 billion unique mobile users in 2016, and the variety of mobile users is expected to reach 5 billion in 2019 Statista, 2016. With the increasing use of “satellite tv for pc, mobile, radio, sensor and hoc wireless networks, instant local area network LAN Stojmenovic, 2003, p. 17”, the networks are more and more robust with broader bandwidth, i. e. evolving from 1G to 4G. The transportable instruments and networks together facilitate the rage of computing on the move, also referred to as mobile computing.
Portable device and network technologies are the main contributor to the advancement of mobile computing, but in reality also the main constraints. The counsel access is proscribed by the bandwidth, connections, network security and etc. , therefore when designing application for portable devices, some elements related to the contraptions and community must be considerately considered, such as bandwidth limitations, battery life, screen size, device memory space, TCP/IP stack, and etc. Jain, 2000. But in my opinion, I agree with that both device and network applied sciences would be continually built in the near future, as well as mobile computing.
Mobile computing has already been employed in assorted areas, including private verbal exchange, e commercial, remote monitoring, remote operations, etc. , and has facilitated a significant variety of apps accessible on multiple portable gadgets. Stojmenovic, 2003. Via the moveable instruments, users can with no trouble and immediately access to preferred suggestions and these useful purposes with no trouble. By July 2015, there are 1,600,000 and 1,500,000 apps available on Google Play and Apple App Store respectively Statista, 2015.
For health sector, in 2015, there are 165,000 health and clinical apps accessible, with 65% specializing in basic health issues reminiscent of fitness, lifestyle and diet, and only 16% on specific health issues Misra, 2015. Increasing users down load and trust the health apps, and it is predicted that health apps might be users’ preferred choice over medical doctors in 2016 Elias, 2015. Location consciousness refers to the access to the users’ locational advice with place technologies, corresponding to GPS, GSM, RFID, NFC, Bluetooth, and etc. live Blair and Sawyer, 2016. Location consciousness can be directed inwards know users’ own locations or outwards know people’s destinations, and it is the key to augment area transparency Leonhardt, 1998.
Then the researches are broadened to context awareness as location is one of the key components of context, and then more components are incorporated in “context”, comparable to time, identification, attention, emotion, and etc. Adomavicius et al. , 2011. According to Dey and Abowd 2001, p. 306, “a system is context aware if it uses context to provide applicable advice and/or amenities to the user, where relevancy depends upon the user’s task”.
The main aim of context awareness computing is to enhance human pc interactions Lowe, Mandl, and Weber, 2012. Mobile computing does bring some handy benefits for us, but there are still some concerns about it. Privacy leak is among the main concerns, and it’s going to be a severe issue when concerning sensitive private data in health sector. A great amount of factors can result in privacy leaks, for instance, “malicious functions, non-public data access by ad libraries, the low efficacy of operating programs in covering data, inference of private information through mobile sensors, and etc. ” Haris, Haddadi and Hui, 2014, p. 2.
Work life balance is also concerned by the general public as the mobile computing on one hand adds convenient access to favored counsel and services at wherever and every time, but on any other hand burs the bounds of work and life. And mobile phone dependancy is another issue after the wide adoptions of cell phone, especially among the many young generations. Haris, M. , Haddadi, H. and Hui, P. 2014 Privacy Leakage in Mobile Computing: Tools, Methods, and Characteristics.
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