CHAPTER the processes of transferring of agricultural Free Critical Thinking For Students

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CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONGeneral BackgroundTraditionally, agricultural information trade has been dominated by industrial media equivalent to newspapers, television, and magazines. In recent years, nevertheless, know-how awareness and desktop literacy are expanding across all demographics and numerous kinds of social media are being used more and more by people searching for news, education, and other data including agriculture, health and so forth. Social media can be described as internet based applications that let the introduction and trade of user generated content. It is the mixing of know-how and social interplay that creates value in these types of media.

Social media and other mobile platforms enable folks to post messages along with specific geographic data Cassa, et al. , 2013. These messages can help track infectious sickness outbreaks Chunara, et al. , 2012 aid in natural catastrophe reaction Lu, et al. , 2012 and supply insight into conflicts Heinzelman, et al. , 2011, where data accrued through professional reporting constructions can take weeks to collect and analyze.

Major agricultural extension strategies are grouped into the three types of particular person, group and mass media. Social media majorly fall into the mass media strategies of communicating agricultural messages. In most literature, Social media is used interchangeably with the emergence of Information, Communication and Technology use in agricultural extension and advisory amenities though Social media is a wide term. As, ICTs have revolutionized the processes of moving of agricultural data or innovation which are designed to boost agricultural manufacturing. So, Social media as part of ICTs can have a similar effect on the increasing the efficacy of the agricultural extension workers’.

Social media sites e. g. , Flickr, YouTube, Twitter and Specially Facebook are a well-liked distribution outlet for users searching to share their exclusive news and hobbies. As a result, these sites host gigantic amounts of user contributed constituents e. g. , photos, videos, and textual content for a wide selection of real world events, starting from common, well known events to smaller events that might get hold of no coverage in classic news retailers.

By choosing a majority of these events and their associated social media documents we can enable robust local event searching and search, to enrich and improve the local search tools that Web se’s offer. Food and Agricultural Organization FAO suggested that in many coming up countries, wide adoption of research results by majority of farmers is still quite limited. This hence, calls for a system which allows enough data flow from researchers to farmers and vice versa. Hence, Agricultural extension agencies that use electronic media have a central role in facilitating the flow of a spread of data to offer the needed exposure of farmers to innovation for entire development. What is social media?Social media refers back to the web based digital tools for sharing and discussing information among people.

It refers back to the user generated information, opinion, video, audio, and multimedia this is shared and mentioned over digital networks Andres and Woodard, 2013. Merriam Webster 2015 defines social media as types of digital verbal exchange via which users can create online groups to share data, ideas, confidential messages and other content material. The definition of Ahlqvist et al. 2008 is concentrated on three basic accessories – content material, communities and Web 2. 0 and operationalizes social media as the interplay of folks and in addition to making, exchanging and commenting contents in digital communities and networks. According to Michelle Chmielewski 2011, social media is not about what each one of us does or says, but about what we do or say together, worldwide, to talk in all directions at any time by any feasible digital means.

Social media are essentially digital technologies facilitating verbal exchange of user generated content through constant interaction Terry, 2009; Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010. In a nut shell, social media are web based tools of electronic communication that permits users to interact, create, share, retrieve, and trade information and ideas in any form text, images, video, etc. that may be mentioned upon, archived, and utilized by anyone in digital groups and networks. Aspects of social media that makes them an important and accessible tool in improvement communique are their easy accessibility through cell phones, mass private verbal exchange and mass self verbal exchange, a bigger set of weak ties to be certain receipt of novel ideas, high degree of connectedness, and link means and content sharing across a number of platforms Hemsley and Mason, 2013. The types described above are a broad categorization of the existing social media platforms but many a times, it becomes difficult to sincerely classify them in a strict category as evolution of social media platforms dependent on user’s preference is awfully common and integration of new features makes them fit in multiple category every now and then.

Social media is more about sociology and psychology of communication than about know-how Saravanan and Bhattacharjee, 2014. Major qualities of social media that distinguishes this variety of online communique from others are participation, openness, dialog, community, and connectedness Mayfield, 2008. The extra special growth of social media can mostly be attributed to the common platform it gives to people to share their ideas and create their own content – be it texts, images, sound clips or videos and in addition the affordability of these platforms as they may be able to be accessed with out incurring extra fees, Convergence of technologies and evolution of all in one transportable units are other causes for expanding social media reach. The popularity of these social media platforms to a world viewers is like never before owing to the increased reach of cyber web enabled cell phones and increased number of social media platforms around the globe. Social media sites gained their popularity not just as a result of they attached chums and family however the huge potential of verbal exchange was soon realized and it started discovering its use in expert verbal exchange.

The options of social media platforms are still different based on the aim. While Facebook has the maximum reach among all social media platforms, LinkedIn continues to be the number one choice for expert verbal exchange as it is more likely to have an expert, well informed dialogue in LinkedIn which is not possible in Facebook or Twitter. It is not a personal social media platform and that’s a reason why 26 per cent of Fortune 500’s Chief Executive Officers CEOs are in LinkedIn compared to only 7. 6 per cent in Facebook Simonson, 2013. Platforms for researchers and academicians like Research Gate and Academia.

edu allow users to post public inquiries to the group, both networks group users by institution, allowing users to see colleagues and create subdomains, scores members based on content interaction and score of members interacting with the content material, thus quantifying the impact of the researcher in his peer neighborhood Ovadia, 2014. In addition, the hashtag revolution has made content search specific and content reach wider on social media. Why use social media?The unique characteristics of participation, openness, dialog, neighborhood and connectedness makes social media a unique user event Mayfield, 2008. According to the most recent findings of Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission BTRC and state counter 93. 07% Facebook, 4. 93% Youtube, 0.

85% twitter . 0. 21% LinkedIn users in Bangladesh are active among the total percent of cyber web users. All these statistics prove the large capability that social media can be for extension practitioners. Social media can be advantageously utilized in agricultural extension, as discussed below Savanna et al.

, 2015:Highly cost effectiveSimultaneously reaches large numbers of personnelLocation and client particular, problem orientedUser generated content material and dialogue among the many community membersEasily accessed from mobile phonesIncreases information superhighway presence of extension organizations and their client reachDemocratization of data by making it accessible to allBrings all stakeholders into a single platformCan measure reach and success by monitoring number of company, friends, followers, mentions, Facebook ‘likes’, dialog index and number of sharesThese potentials make social media a highly applicable and really helpful platform for extension body of workers to share their opinion to a group. With the demanding situations like limited availability of ICTs and web facilities in rural areas, their suitability to just educated and online clientele, loss of recognition and readiness to accept social media by extension experts, breach of individual privacy, piracy of the constituents and irrelevant information, the good fortune of social media depends on commitment level of extension employees and group members in using social media for extension. Saravanan et al. , 2015. But in spite of these issues, social media have become popular among rural people. Use of social media generates a new viewers.

Twitter, Facebook and YouTube allow agricultural workers to tell their stories in their own words. The masses of folk who use Facebook and Twitter create new ways to share with in another way uniformed people. According to Statisticsbrain. com, there are more than 1. 2 billion those that use Facebook worldwide. Agricultural laborers can share what’s vital to them and what alterations they wish to see in the agriculture industry.

Social media captures accepted users. Interesting stories trending on Twitter or Facebook are more likely to be read than buried deep in a newspaper. Facebook is the area’s most appropriate social networking site as it makes it easy to connect with family and chums and share pictures, websites and videos. It allows users to create a profile, add friends, send messages and join common interest groups. Is Social Media the Most Important New Tool for Agricultural knowledge sharing?When asked what one believes to be the impact of expertise on agriculture, a conventional and customary answer might focus on medical and technological tendencies that have been made in all areas of the agriculture industry. These tendencies include but are in no way restricted to genetic developments in the livestock industry, bio tech agronomic developments the implementation of genetically modified organisms in crops, using GPS technology in agricultural accessories, and the use of agricultural byproducts in alternative fuel sources.

In essence, natural components were provided to mankind; with time, mankind’s knowledge referring to feeding the realm has evolved in such a way that has ultimately helped to produce food, fuel, and fiber more effectively. If an individual had asked me five years ago what I believed to be the impact of technology on agriculture, most certainly, the medical and technological trends which I formerly described would were the topics I used to provide a solution. Today, in spite of this, my answer includes a very alternative concept. Although it is true that science and expertise have enormously changed the agriculture and should proceed to make a big impact on agriculture, advancements as result of technology could be for naught if agriculturalists do not conquer the latest issue of agricultural illiteracy. The power and impact of social media has not yet been fully found out; but already, organizations like PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, HSUS, Farm Sanctuary, and lots of others have successfully harnessed the ability of social media to do great harm to the agriculture industry.

Negative images and messages falsely depicting agriculture have reached millions, if not billions, of internet users all over the world. For those folks living in the city, a YouTube video posted by PETA may be all that person knows of agriculture. If that person thinks pigs are mistreated, that person might not are looking to purchase pork anymore. This can have a ripple effect and will almost certainly be a serious problem. The livelihoods of farmers in all places are on the line.

Not only do the social media movements of these activist groups have an impact on consumer selections, activist groups are gaining assist from these customers. As further and further help is gained for their cause, anti agriculturalists build up energy to lobby for change in government policies. Agriculture has been tasked with feeding 9 billion people by the year 2050 using fewer materials and fewer energy. If additional government regulations are imposed, this goal could be impossible to reach. I recognize the terrible impact an easy tweet, blog post, Facebook post, or YouTube video could have on the industry I have chosen to work in for the rest of my life. I also understand the positive impact a tweet or online social media post can have.

Today, many agriculturalists have to defend themselves with social media. Wouldn’t we make more of an impact if we were to begin the dialog?Consumers want and need to understand the reality about how their food is produced. The producer responsible for that customer’s rib eye steak or ear of sweet corn needs to be the only instructing the general public. Recently, farm families all around the United States have begun to understand the importance of telling their thoughts. Stories about their family farm doing away with the bad connotation of corporate farming, thoughts about how they started out in 4 H and FFA learning about animal stewardship eliminating consumer fears of animal cruelty, or even just thoughts about what a farmer’s common day feels like. Farmers are sharing these thoughts via social media, and I trust that here is the start of a movement that will for all time change the agriculture industry as we comprehend it.

Consumers need to know how and why we produce food the way in which we do, and internet expertise is just the tool to help agriculturalists inform consumers. In order to proceed employing advanced technologies in the field, agriculturalists will first deserve to harness the ability of social media expertise. The impact of that know-how may be huge, and I am excited to see just how powerful this technology can be for agriculture. The Effect of Social Media Activities on Network Information Accuracy of IndividualsSince recent years, we likely all noticed an explosion of usage and approval for social media akin to LinkedIn and Facebook. Already hundreds of thousands of folks throughout the globe are general users of social media and have social networking cyber web sites money owed.

Currently, there are lots of possibilities to engage in social media reminiscent of running a blog and there are thousands of social networking sites SNS each focusing on different pursuits and possibilities similar to sharing data, networking or expressing emotions and emotions Cavazza, 2009. Social media become more common day by day and a customary false impression made is that only kids employ it. Currently, many large and renowned organizations all over the world use social media. Besides the chances for industrial, folks might extract much information from many of the available SNS about their connections and the structure of their network Borgatti et al. , 2009. Furthermore, Ellison et al.

2007 mentioned empirical help for the positive relationship between intensive Facebook use and signals of social capital. Finally, in accordance with Boyd and Ellison 2008 its uniqueness lies in the proven fact that SNS are making networks visible. However, it might still be asked if this is just for fun and games or does it yield ‘real’ blessings in addition?It can be argued that above outlined chances of social media are useful because networks are complicated to know Moore, 1992. Moreover, networks are generally complicated regarding the incontrovertible fact that it is sophisticated to prepare and keep track of relationships Kilduff et al. , 2008 and hence it may be hard to know networks commonly. Due to the complexity of understanding networks we also know that people are likely to pick out networks and its structure incorrectly.

For instance, in keeping with Kumbasar et al. 1994 the perception of personnel is they have a more central role in the friendship network within the association than is actually the case. Furthermore, more ‘small worldedness’ is perceived in networks than that it exists in reality Kilduff et al. , 2008. Finally, Casciaro 1998 argues that ‘people differ of their capacity to pick out precisely the informal styles of interpersonal relationships of their social groups, i.

e. the crowd’s community architecture’ p. 331. Because of the indisputable fact that several SNS are giving data about direct and indirect links, here is fitting more seen for users. This is vital since there may be evidence that individuals having a correct perception of advice networks are perceived as more robust than others in the organization e.

g. Krackhardt, 1990. Moreover, community information accuracy benefits folks in terms of resource acquisition because of the working out which connections in their networks grant them useful resource admission Casciaro, 1998. Challenges and alternatives of social media in extensionSocial media use is not transforming into at a desired rate in rural India as there are a number of challenges that deserve to be looked after to leverage the alternatives. The following table lists the challenges and opportunities of social media in extension Table 2Table 1: Challenges and opportunities of social media in extensionChallenges OpportunitiesEnsuring participation Few social media apps are availablewithout internetQuality manage and monitoring of posts Forming global/national interest groups is possibleInternet and IT infrastructure issues Reaching one to manySatisfying heterogeneous users Greater engagement and dialogueInstitutionalizing social media Allows for integration of a wide range of stakeholdersContinuous engagement Can act as catalyst for resourcemobilization technological, organizational, and financialSkilled human useful resource to maintain social media interactions Measuring the impact – lack of potential for tools and analytics that help monitoring and assessing the price of information Allocating time to update content Encouraging stakeholders to access materials through social media links Source: Saravanan et al. , 2015Knowledge managementAs we have got noted above knowledge is becoming a strategically important resource and a very colossal driver of organizational functionality Yesil and Dereli, 2013.

Either located in the minds of the folks tacit information Polányi, 1966, embedded in organizational workouts and norms, codified in technological contraptions specific data Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995, knowledge enables the development of new competences Choo, 1998. Successful companies are those that persistently create new information, disseminate this information throughout the organization, and embody it in applied sciences, products and facilities Gottschalk, 2007; Gaál et al, 2014. Knowledge management describes the processes of buying, coming up, sharing, exploiting and covering organizational data to recover organizations’ competitiveness. Negroponte 1995 conceived the idea of “data” as the latest input factor for commercial organizations and a key to their future competitiveness. Many organizations and associations have recognized the importance of information and information management to the longer term functionality of both agencies and society.

For instance, the report Europe 2020 sets out a new vision of Europe’s social market economic climate for the 21st century. One of the priorities it puts forward is the promotion of smart growth, which is, coming up an economic climate based on data and innovation. Such smart growth calls for among others things the promoting of innovation and knowledge move, making full use of data and conversation technologies and guaranteeing that cutting edge ideas can be become new items and facilities European Commission, 2010. Organizations around the world have focused on knowledge management and have already evolved data management programs as a way to get well their performance with varying degrees of luck. Clearly one important set of activities involves the defining information and developing the metrics to evaluate how efficiently a firm is dealing with sharing its information intellectual capital.

The development of this definition and the creation of metrics is in actual fact challenging but is a necessary first step towards recuperating knowledge management practices because it has been cogently argued that one cannot recover what one cannot somehow measure Gaál et al, 2008. MotivationInternal elements: perceived power Gray, 2001 and reciprocity Davenport and Prusak, 1998External elements: dating with the recipient and rewards for sharing Hall, 2001OpportunitiesFormal: training courses, team works, technology based systemsInformal: exclusive relationships and social networksCulture of the work environmentOrganizational tradition determines values, beliefs, and work programs that could encourage information sharing Janz and Prasarnphanich, 2003There are three generations of information sharing Bellefroid, 2012:First era: the basic way of information sharing is the concept of codification Hansen et al, 1999 and storage. This way can easily be supported by data applied sciences. Organizations have urgent deserve to pay specific attention to effective information sharing, which is essential importance for his or her good fortune and to obtain aggressive benefit. Knowledge sharing can be materialized in written form through IT methods or via head to head communications.

It is important for a higher era managers to provide opportunities for people to share their information. Organizations have to stimulate a deserve to share data among a bunch of people. When this need seems, actual or digital spaces are likely for use for knowledge sharing purposes Huysman and Wit, 2004. About actual data sharing a number of lookup has been done Bock et al, 2005; Hansen et al, 2005, Quigley et al, 2007;. As, the goal of Knowledge Sharing KS in social media is to distribute the right content material to right people at right time. The system hence must enable us quickly and effectively to discover applicable data and expertise and that can aid into choice making and issue fixing.

The idea of data move is complicated to capture, because there’s no clear contrast among the transfer of knowledge and the introduction of new information Bresman et al. , 1999. However, the largest problem in fostering a virtual group is the supply of data, namely the willingness to share data with other members. Extension workers intent to share information as a result of they feel that sharing what they know will cause them to expandable or that their data on any given field is what makes them unique in social platforms. They are also intent to perform virtual groups, especially in expert digital communities for seeking information to get to the bottom of complications at work. According to the ‘Social Exchange Theory’ Thibaut, et al.

, 1959 members in digital groups expect mutual reciprocity that justifies their expenses in terms of time and effort spent sharing intrinsic motivation their information. Through close social interactions, extension workers are able to enhance the depth, breadth, and effectivity of mutual information trade. The use of social media in information sharing though is not a new concept in the context of industrial enterprises, its adoption and use for professional information sharing in agriculture sector, especially in a developing country context definitely holds some values, and hope to add a new dimension in extension communique activity. Despite the social media is designed as a hedonic information system, its use for utilitarian purposes comparable to for business and work are prominent. As it, on one hand, helps to grow strong social capital among the many personnel, on any other hand, users deliberately or un intentionally share or exchange expert/job related information. Thus, enables knowledge sharing among users.

Therefore, this lookup is meant to determine extension employees’ intention to adopt social media in agricultural knowledge sharing. Statement of the ProblemThe biggest open area of augmentation benefit giving in Bangladesh is the Department of Agricultural Extension DAE. The bleeding edge augmentation officers prevalently referred to as Sub Assistant Agriculture Officer SAAO of DAE work in piece level the most minimum regulatory unit of growth advantage/sub unit of Upazila and straightforwardly exchange innovation to the ranch level. Most farmers access information from extension laborers. The selection of extension workers is comparatively less than the farmer numbers; hence the necessity for cutting edge facilities to address this gap Gakuru et al. , 2009.

The agriculture sector in coming up international locations is fitting increasingly information intensive. Researchers at the worldwide, local, and national levels continue to generate new data and bring new answer for raised issue. As agriculture systems become more complex, farmers’ access to reliable, timely and applicable information assets turns into more essential to their competitiveness. Information need to be relevant and significant to farmers, in addition to being packaged and introduced in a way preferred by them Diekmann, Loibl and Batte, 2009. The good fortune of extension service is hence in large part is dependent upon their information, skills and performance to provide fine extension carrier to its clients. For seeking information and updating their information and skills, extension employees use both interpersonal communication akin to higher officials Upazila Agriculture Officer UAO, Agricultural Extension Officer AEO at upazila or district level, and mass conversation media like revealed components newspaper, bulletin, leaflet, other farm book, radio and Television.

Nevertheless, recent advancement of conversation media particularly cellular phone, laptop, the Internet, digital data repositories likes social media are also viewed as the important information sources for extension laborers to obtain necessary data and develop their capability in providing extension provider. The extension employees need to recognize farmers’ alternatives and issues and help them finding the best solutions for their agriculture. De Silva and Ratnadikwara 2008 state that a two way process makes it possible for extension professionals to share lessons and best practices related to their facilities, thus incorporating their data base to boot. Social media is more and more being used as a medium of sharing information and creating recognition. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and blogs have been used to engage with a number of audiences.

The users generate and shape the content material. Today, in many nations, social media are being used by farmers and extension experts, not just as their confidential verbal exchange medium, but additionally, to supply access to information though sending messages service SMS, multimedia messages carrier MMS, posting agricultural contents, photos and videos on the different agricultural group. Hence, the most aim of this study is to present the findings of a survey accomplished in Comilla district, in regards to the use of social media by extension mavens, chiefly as a mean for sharing to agricultural information which eventually help them to obtain the objectives of DAE and recuperate living essential of rural people in general and the farming community in particular by expanding agricultural production. In such manner, it is relevant to grasp the correct reaction to the accompanying inquiries:What elements impact extension experts to use social media to share agricultural knowledge?To what extent extension mavens use social media in updating their potential in agricultural service supply?What are the giant have an impact on of the selected elements to extension mavens’ use of social media and their perceived capacity development in agricultural carrier supply?What the problems extension experts’ faced in sharing work related data using social media?With regards to the formerly mentioned questions, the researcher embraced an study entitled, “Use of Social Media in Agricultural Knowledge Sharing by the Extension professionals’”Objectives of the StudyBased on the problem explanations made in area 1. 3, the accompanying lookup goals were detailed to direct the lookup:To determine the factors that might affect extension professionals’ to adopt/use social media in agricultural knowledge sharing,To determine extension experts’ intention to use social media in agricultural data sharing,To discover the impact of the diagnosed elements goal 1 on the extension professionals’ intention to adopt/use social media in agricultural knowledge sharing. Justification of the StudyUse of social media is awfully vital due to it provides a quick and responsive community for folks involved in agriculture to collect and exchange data.

It allows instant dissemination of important rising issues and the sharing of sure data among producers and shoppers of agricultural products and by offering science based plant nutrition and fertilizer use data to industry, farmers, agricultural and environmental leaders, scientists, and public policy makers. Yet adoption of social media in aspect of agricultural data sharing by extension employees in Bangladesh seems to not so popular. However, this study is essential because social media as a medium is getting used as a tool for informing, teaching and persuading the loads along traditional mediums. Hence this study seeks to learn the way efficient social media is in speaking to agricultural extension laborers and how this may bring on improvement in the agriculture sector. The study is also necessary in order to realize the effectivity of social media platforms in communicating to its target audience. It can be useful to researchers, scholars and organizations who have an interest in figuring out the efficiency of social media as a medium of communication.

On the other hand, this research may facilitate to determine the elements that have an effect on extension workers to adopt/use social media in agricultural service and extension laborers’ intention to use social media in agricultural knowledge sharing. The diagnosed elements can be used in fostering expert digital communities of agricultural knowledge sharing to track infectious disorder outbreaks, aid in natural disaster reaction, product price information about new released varieties and technologies that could motivate/help farmers to increase agriculture production and assure the food safety of Bangladesh. From academic perspective, findings of this study and the technique used in this study would encourage other researchers to conduct further investigation. Finally, the findings of this study will hope to offer insights to the policy makers on how to develop effective ICT based solutions for efficient extension provider in Bangladesh. Scope and Limitations of the StudyThis study was driven with a view to surveying the usage of social media in agricultural information sharing by the extension experts. An endeavor was likewise made to discover the flaws looked by the SAAOs, AEOs and UAOs to utilize social media in refreshing their experts’ aptitudes and an analogous time information too.

Nonetheless, with a particular end goal to make the investigation brilliant and huge, the accompanying confinements have been regarded all over the study:The study was directed in five upazilas to be particular Debidwar, Brahman para, Burichong, Chandina and Comilla Sadar under Comilla locale. There are numerous factors that may have an impact on extension mavens’ to information sharing through social media, then again only few factors which deemed important and in line with the study context were regarded for this study. While project and duty of expansion experts are differed, just front level augmentation laborers e. g. , SAAOs were considered as the respondents of this study. Concept DefinitionSocial media Social media refers back to the information superhighway based digital tools for sharing and discussing data among people.

It refers back to the user generated data, opinion, video, audio, and multimedia it truly is shared and discussed over digital networks Andres and Woodard, 2013Extension professional Agricultural extension professionals incorporate each gifted staff operating in the extension association who give domesticate similar enlargement help to its clientele. Be that as it may, just front level augmentation specialists i. e. , SAAO were regarded as the respondents of this study. Reciprocity Kankanhalli, et al. 2005 The belief that current contribution to social media would cause future request for knowledge being met Davenport and Prusak 1998Self development Kankanhalli, et al.

2005 Self development refers to the activities that get well an organization’s capacity to achieve its mission or a man’s capacity to define and recognize his/her goals or to do his/her job more effectively. Here, Self development of extension experts is defined as their perceived skill to improve their skills and data through the use of of social media. Reputation Kankanhalli, et al. 2005 The perception of increase in repute due to contributing information to social media Constant et al 1996; Kollock 1999Communication efficacyCompeau ; Higgins, 1995 It refers back to the judgment of one’s ability to use a technology e. g.

, laptop to achieve a distinctive job or task. Communication efficacy in this study incorporates one’s belief in his ability to upgrade his data and abilities to perform a job better using social media. Relationship buildingBock, et al. 2005 The degree to which one believes one can recover mutual relationships with others via one’s knowledge sharing. Enjoyment Kankanhalli, et al. 2005 The belief of excitement obtained from aiding others via data contributed to social media Wasko and Faraj 2000Subjective norms Fishbein and Ajzen 1975, p.

302 The degree to which one believes that those that bear force on one’s actions expect one to perform the habits in question multiplied by the degree of one’s compliance with each of one’s referents. Therefore, this study defined subjective norms as the extent to which an extension professional perceives that her peers, colleagues and critical others accept as true with she should use ICTs. CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF LITERATUREThe motivation behind this bankruptcy is to study the aftereffects of a portion of the past examinations and prominent articles having pertinence to this investigation. This exam is chiefly diagnosed with the assurance of saw limit working of SAAOs through web based social networking. The analyst tried to collect required data by extensive seeking of related thesis, writing, periodicals and the Internet. In any case, utilization of social media by experts in agriculture for limit building or for expanding work execution was rarely accessible.

To tackle the lookup goals, this study hence comments the existing literature which deemed relevant to the phenomenon of interest corresponding to IT adoption literature, organizational behavior literature, and proposes a theoretical figuring out of the existing investigation into the 3 sections. The first part is involved concerning the review of literature on the idea of social media and shows how web based social networking encourage in agricultural information sharing. The second part identifies the salient elements which may have an impact on extension experts’ use of social media for agricultural information sharing. The third part proposes a conceptual model of this study based on the dialogue offered in first two sections. The accompanying areas in the audit of related writing announced by the goals of the investigation and sorted out as indicated by the importance of the targets. 2.

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1. 1 Social media: new technology tools for “agricultural extension”?Though Social Media purposes can be efficiently used by extension and advisory amenities, loss of awareness and skill about its use currently constrain its widely wide-spread use. Moreover the organizational tradition within extension organizations also restricts exploitation of its full potential by extension professionals. Developed nations have began adopting and harvesting the blessings of social media for agricultural extension for a while. For example, US Co operative extension system and universities have followed social media for connecting its customers especially through Facebook, twitter, pinterst, google+ and youtube .

The AgChat Twitter online dialogue group by the AgChat Foundation started in 2009 by a bunch of American farmers is widely used in USA, UK, Australia and Ireland for facilitating discussions of industry issues between farmers and agribusinesses has 50,200+ followers and 25,000 tweets . Many US land grant universities evolved social media guidelines for extension. Considerable choice of articles written by the extension experts from the co operative extension system and US universities emphasises the capability role of social media in extension. Developing Countries: Social media use has gained pace in the coming up countries too, particularly with Facebook. Some examples are given in the table below:Table 2: social media usage for agricultural knowledge sharing around the globe:Group/Community/Pages Description Target users Region MemberUse by farmerLivestock Information and Marketing Centreivestock. TN/ Members farmers, extension staff, scientists, market functionaries, customers, local leaders, etc.

of this group share data related to cattle manufacturing, management, advertising, etc. A separate page also is on fb comparable only to marketing of cattle. ivestock. Market Agricultural stakeholders related to farm animals Tamil Nadu, India49483Mkulima Young Young Farmer This page is an information sharing platform for young farmers started Joseph Macharia, a tender farmer himself. Mostly agro advisory and market information are shared.

Kenya 39082Natural farming Development CentreaturalFarmingTN/ . Members of the gang share information associated with organic farming, permaculture, hydroponics, aquaponics, Natural Repellents, etc. Farmers attracted to organic and zero budget agriculture Tamil Nadu, India16 268Turmeric Farmers’ Association of India This page was created by turmeric farmers to stabilize price of turmeric in the market. Till date, the farmers attach in the course of the page and share data to keep turmeric price stable and boost marketing alternatives of turmeric. Turmeric farmersIndia2911National Ecological Producers Association APNE Information related to ecological farming is shared during the page.

FarmersPeru3061Use by extension centersKrishi Vigyan Kendra, Namakkal Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Namakkal communicates data associated with farmers’ training programmes, availability of inputs etc. Subject Matter Specialists of KVK, farmers, and other agricultural stakeholders Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India1464Use by extension professional networksAgricultural Extension in South Asia AESA Members post links to applicable guides on extension and advisory services, bulletins of workshops and conferences, major policy decisions on extension, reviews of meetings and workshops applicable to the wider theme of extension Agricultural Extension stakeholders South Asia7 550Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services GFRAS This page adds information related to advocacy and leadership on pluralistic, demand driven rural advisory services. RAS Professionals and othersGlobal1 794Use by extension personnelVivasayam KarkkalamLet us Learn AgricultureMr. Madhu Balan, a public extension officer started fb group to cater the information needs of famers in 2012. This group, trade data on advanced farm applied sciences, initiates discussion with other farmers and extension personnel, share information and photos on best practices by other farmers, authorities schemes, etc. Question and answers, data on Terrace garden, hydrophonics are most discussed topics during this group.

Farmers and others thoseWho are interested in agricultureTamil Nadu,12 118All these examples provided above are initiated by individuals, small groups and networks to disseminate information by and for agricultural stakeholders via social media. The choice of fans/members of these pages, communities and groups are increasing every day and many of them are professionals. Social media use in agriculture is not restricted to any particular age group but users belong to all age groups. While Twitter is a more favorite platform in developed nations, Facebook dominates in arising countries. While farmers in developed international locations are active in social media to inform their thoughts and fix with their customers, in the developing international locations, these efforts are scattered and there are only very few cases where extension mavens and farmers participate actively in social media. 3.

Participation of agricultural stakeholders: Other than groups like Turmeric Farmers Association of India which is formed by farmers, other groups like AESA, YPARD, etc. are used actively only by particular form of users and participation of farmers is nearly nil even supposing they’re for all agricultural stakeholders. 4. Infrastructure issues: Limited ICT infrastructure and web connectivity is still a giant issue in rural areas of most arising nations. 5.

Mindset of users: Many users still agree with that social media is “not for serious business”. It is for simply to share personal photos and common data. 2. 1. 2 The idea of social mediaThe cyber web has impacted verbal exchange.

It has been regarded as an archive for information wherein people can obtain information. According to Dennis and Merill 2010 the information superhighway is a marvel as a result of in response to findings its users rose from under 10% of the adult inhabitants in 2005 to an predicted 66. 5% in 2008 or some 281 million Americans. Most people use the information superhighway for private communication through email, social media sites and access to data. Social media refers to the information superhighway based digital tools for sharing and discussing data among people.

It refers back to the user generated data, opinion, video, audio, and multimedia this is shared and discussed over digital networks Andres and Woodard, 2013. Merriam Webster 2015 defines social media as types of digital communique via which users can create online groups to share data, ideas, personal messages and other content. The definition of Ahlqvist et al. 2008 is focussed on three basic components – content material, communities and Web 2. 0 and operationalises social media as the interaction of folks and likewise to making, changing and commenting contents in digital communities and networks. According to Michelle Chmielewski 2011, social media is not about what each one of us does or says, but about what we do or say in combination, worldwide, to talk in all directions at any time by any possible digital means.

Social media are basically digital technologies facilitating communique of user generated content via consistent interaction Terry, 2009; Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010. In a nut shell, social media are web based tools of electronic conversation that enables users to engage, create, share, retrieve, and exchange data and ideas in any form text, pictures, video, etc. that can be mentioned upon, archived, and utilized by anyone in digital groups and networks. Aspects of social media that makes them a vital and accessible tool in development verbal exchange are their quick access via cell phones, mass personal communication and mass self communication, a larger set of weak ties to make certain receipt of novel ideas, high degree of connectedness, and link capacity and content sharing across a number of platforms Hemsley and Mason, 2013. The cyber web and the World Wide Web are a mind-blowing invention that allows access to a nearly limitless storage of data. After preliminary skeptism some leaders of media industries proclaimed the web to be the common information highway and were bullish on its development.

They imagined the advantages of interactivity as an unparalled platform for offering their content whether data, entertainment, opinion or advertising almost effortless and without the costs associated with printing and broadcasting. The new media can be interactive, with quick comments from customers in addition to a perpetually updated treasure trove of information Dennis andMerill, 2010. Social media is a one stop shop for information wherein the users can read and likewise contribute to the content material. It is handy to people who need information instantly or do not have quick access to data. Social media is a group of online technologies that permit users to share insights, experiences and opinions with one a further.

The sharing can be in the form of text, audio, video or multimedia Safko and Brake, 2009. Tang, Gu and Whinston 2012 state that the advantages of participating in social media have gone beyond social sharing to building reputations and bringing in career opportunities and fiscal income. According to Kietzman, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre 2011 social media platforms specializes in some or all seven constructing blocks that’s; identification, sharing, conversations, relationships, presence, groups and reputation. Different social media actions are described by the extent to which they center around some or all of those blocks. Social media adds opportunities for association to interact with their publics/confidential in real time. This is important as a result of feedback enables organizations or companies to make quick judgements and an analogous time gather information.

Social media is also inexpensive in the end. According to Kiertzman et al. 2011 due to mobile and web based technologies social media creates highly interactive platforms via which individuals and communities share, co create, discuss and modify user generated content material. It introduces big and pervasive changes to conversation between organizations, communities and folks. Social media has revolutionized conversation wherein it has managed to surpass classic gatekeepers in classic media this is editors and other choice makers who set the agenda.

Nevertheless social media has not overthrown basic media and is complementing traditional media in agenda placing. Traditional media has been the main medium for firms to arrive their audiences and there was a great deal of handle which is have shyed away from on social media. Social media is dominated by user generated content material. Social media is an evolutionary stimulus because users not organizations or the classic news media now control the advent and distribution of data. Users bypass the traditional information gatekeepers Coombs, 2012. Old media are in large part geographic, aimed toward people in certain physical places, whereas new media are demographic, attempting clusters of like minded folks with similar hobbies and passions, very like really good magazines but with broader reach and actual interactivity Dennis and Merill, 20010.

Social media has allowed for the crossing of boundaries whereby people of various geographical regions locally and internationally were able to trade ideas on a number of forums. This has allowed for essential conversations to take place. Makinen and Kuira 2008 as quoted by Odero 2013 state that social media was an alternative media for citizen verbal exchange but it was also used as a channel for biased information. 2. 1.

3 Research on knowledge sharing and social media toolsSeveral lookup has been performed about using social media and Web 2. 0 in the workplace for sharing data. Paroutis and Saleh 2009 investigated the key determinants of knowledge sharing and collaboration using Web 2. 0 technologies by exploring the causes for and obstacles to personnel’ active participation in its quite a lot of platforms within a massive multinational firm. Their study identifies the important thing determinants of knowledge sharing and collaboration using Web 2. 0 applied sciences by exploring the causes for and limitations to employees’ active participation in its a lot of platforms within a massive multinational firm.

Using insights from both users and non users of Web 2. 0, right here four key determinants were diagnosed: history, end result expectancies, perceived organizational aid and trust. Dumbrell and Steele 2014 offered a casual knowledge management framework based on the system capabilities gift in social media technologies in addition to the necessities of older adult users. The system functions distinctive to social media applied sciences are: public peer to look sharing, content material assessment among peers, and the “push” nature of these programs. Behringer and Sassenberg 2015 studied the relation among importance of knowledge trade, deficits in data exchange, perceived usefulness of social media for data trade, as well as social media experience on the one hand and the intention to use knowledge exchange expertise on the other hand. The results showed that the interplay among the importance and deficits concerning knowledge trade, perceived usefulness of social media for information trade, and adventure in social media use jointly affected the intention to apply social media for data trade after their implementation.

Another study Sigalaa and Chalkiti, 2015 investigates the relation between social media use and employee creativity by adopting an information management approach on the way to consider the impact of social networks and interactions on folks’ creativity. Their findings spotlight the deserve to shift focus from identifying and managing inventive folks micro level and/or organizational contexts macro level to making and handling artistic social networks meso level. The use of social media for externalizing, disseminating and discussing data with others within a whole lot of social networks in addition to for combining and generating shared new knowledge can further trigger, enrich and expand the personnel’ individual cognitive skills and provide them with stimuli for generating and co creating more and newer ideas/knowledge. 2. 1.

4 Social media and its’ roles to knowledge sharing:A definitive aim of social media tools is making a dynamic and data network community that people can trade and offer their tremendous data which is termed data sharing. Different investigations have established that data can be better and adequately imparted to the guide of online networking apparatuses which have gone far in affecting all parts of human lives and makes an attempt. Sonja and Carina 2012 characterised web based social networking as online purposes for correspondences being encouraged among combination folks and organizations. Likewise, Abdulsalam and Azizah 2012 characterised web based social networking as the progressive arm of the web that gives better strategies for making content material, teaming up, speaking, and sharing data online in an open social condition. They are an assortment of innovations that help the social parts of the Internet as a channel for correspondence, joint effort, and communication, which is described as Web 2. 0 assets that underscore dynamic cooperation, network, coordinated effort, and as well as sharing of data and feelings among clients.

Web based social networking innovations, for instance, web journals, wikis, podcasts, RSS channels, and long range informal verbal exchange can be portrayed as ‘social programming’ since they are seen as being in particular related, and clients team up to create open substance to the general population Van 2009 opined that applying this kind of online networking apparatuses in the association might actually help folks to help each other to participate in data administration and studying sharing. Kim and Abbas 2010 analyze the elements of the net 2. 0 in scholastic libraries, in view of information administration and learning sharing standpoint. Their discoveries display that the net 2. 0, RSS contraptions and blog utilized particularly in scholastic libraries and Tagging gadgets were generally utilized by understudies. Likewise Wahlroos 2010, in his proposal entitled “Online networking as a form of authoritative information sharing: a contextual investigation on consultant cooperation at Wartsila”, researched the portion of Social Media Tools is in the sharing of studying.

The consequences of his examination demonstrated that individual elements using of this device in individual life, authoritative parts workouts of chiefs and associates and hierarchical aides and really good elements, for example, really expert aptitudes in the utilization of Social Media Tools is compelling in sharing of learning. Asemi and Talkhabi 2012 in an examination, researched the level of mindfulness, use and dispositions of graduate understudies of Sharif University about social intuitive media web 2. 0 and in the long run presumed that among the seven gatherings of SMT in this investigation counting SNT, running a blog contraptions, miniaturized scale Blogging instruments, SBT, IVShT and video conferencing apparatuses, wiki and smaller scale running a blog are committed most excessive and least customers to itself, one by one. Electronic media viz. mobile phone, computing device, Internet, online databases, web and mobile application can be very useful to get data even to the remote areas where it is very hard to make direct contact Samanta, 1986. Internet based medium is a desirable source of data Mahtab and Mokhtarnia, 2009 which permit extension laborers to access to a data resource every time from anywhere without much delay and depending on the classic data resources.

Social media has also been seen as a functionality enabler in the workplace. Considering these arguments, it may be concluded that experts’ use of social media enable them to retrieve, activity and disseminate data independently and hence promote efficient extension service to its customers. 2. 2 Identification of the Salient Factors of Social Media Use by Extension Professionals:Understanding extension experts’ utilization of social media in agricultural knowledge sharing was the key center of attention of this study. Assessed introduced in Section 2. 1.

3 as of now uncovers social media roles to share data in work setting. In this manner, it can be reasoned that utilization of social media could be a compelling option for experts to overhaul their perception and potential along other traditional methodologies. Be that as it may, it is vital to realize what drives professionals to utilize social media in agricultural information sharing. Brown and Duguid 2001 imply that information flows are best understood by inspecting how work is really performed and considering information and learning as an effect of exact engagement in apply. When individuals have a typical apply, data effortlessly flows across that observe, enabling individuals to create social networks to assist knowledge trade Brown and Duguid 2000.

Brown and Duguid imply that there are two observe related social networks which are essential for figuring out studying, work, and the movement of data: groups of apply and networks of apply. These researchers conclude that the important thing to competitive benefit is a firm’s capability to coordinate autonomous communities of observe internally and leverage the information that flows into these communities from network connections Brown and Duguid 2000, 2001. A neighborhood of follow contains a tightly knit group of members engaged in a shared practice who know each other and work together, usually meet head to head, and continually negotiate, talk, and coordinate with each other without delay. In a neighborhood of observe, joint sense making and issue fixing complements the formation of sturdy interpersonal ties and creates norms of direct reciprocity within a small neighborhood Lave 1991; Lave and Wenger 1991; Wenger 1998. In assessment, networks of follow encompass a bigger, loosely knit, geographically distributed group of folks engaged in a shared follow, but who would possibly not know one another nor necessarily expect to meet head to head Brown and Duguid 2001. Networks of follow often coordinate through third parties equivalent to expert associations, or exchange information via conferences and publications akin to really expert newsletters.

Although folks connected through a community of observe may never know or meet each other head to head, they’re capable of sharing a great deal of data Brown and Duguid 2000. With recent advances in computer mediated communications, networks of apply are able to extend their reach using applied sciences equivalent to websites, electronic bulletin boards, and e mail lists. Building upon Brown and Duguid’s 2000 basic description of networks of practice, we define an electronic network of observe as a unique case of the broader idea of networks of observe where the sharing of apply comparable knowledge occurs primarily via computing device based communication applied sciences. While many networks of apply are increasingly using electronic conversation to complement their traditional actions, electronic networks of observe differ from networks of apply because of the impact of expertise on communications, which can result in different dynamics DeSanctis and Monge 1999. More formally, we define an digital network of observe as a self making ready, open undertaking system focused on a shared observe that exists primarily through laptop mediated communication.

On any other hand, the types of social media platforms users in agricultural extension carrier supply highlights the state of social media in extension service delivery with admire to the stakeholders, and emphasizes the type of focused viewers and the desires needed to be addressed. Despite the current globally mentioned common passable level of social media platforms’ membership/followership by the stakeholders in agricultural extension service delivery, 1001 10,000 customers 25. 1% and highest are reached Suchiradipta and Saravanan, 2016. On using social media for agricultural information intention, stakeholders mostly either share or find data in place of discuss, suggest or promote a know-how innovation. An proof to here’s supplied in Figure…Table:3 What people seek in social media:Information Sought Mean Standard DeviationTechnological data 3. 701 0.

9431Educational and coaching information 3. 913 0. 5423Business and trade data 3. 176 0. 8612Government agricultural policies and plans 3.

113 1. 0617Weather condition and Environmental information 3. 363 1. 2610Variety of seeds 2. 984 0. 9745Agrochemicals 3.

853 0. 6734Credit facilities, source, terms and conditions 2. 152 1. 0080Market trend, price, and stock available 2. 357 0. 6834Source: Kuria, 2014In essence, the time and place have come for social media in this information age and that agricultural extension service supply is progressively blending into the rage.

2. 3 The Conceptual Model and Hypotheses Development 85725bottom00 Conceptual framework is the foundation for working out the lookup issues and linkage among various variables. It helps as guiding ideas for analyzing the research issues. It also helps easy visualization of the dating among the based and unbiased variables. The study tried to focus towards use of social media in agricultural data sharing by the extension experts. A based variable may be influenced and affected via interacting forces of many characteristics in his surroundings.

The conceptual framework of the study has been presented in Figure 1. The model depicts that extension experts’ efficacy is certainly influenced by their Social media use which in spite of this contingent upon seven independent elements viz. Reputation, Reciprocity, Relationship Building and Communication efficacy Extrinsic motivation and Self improvement, Enjoyment and Subjective norms Intrinsic motivation were controlled in the model. Figure 2. SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 1 The conceptual model of this study2.

3. 1 Reputation and social media use:In most organizations today, the importance of reputation is increasing as original contracts among organizations and representatives in view of the length of administration dissolve Ba et al. 2001; Davenport et al. 1998. In such operating environments, data contributors can take pleasure in appearing others that they possess helpful experience Ba et al. 2001.

This earns them admire Constant et al. 1994 and a higher reputation Constant et al. 1996. Therefore, data contributors can benefit from advanced self idea once they give a contribution their knowledge Hall 2001; Kollock 1999. Employees were found to share their best apply due to a want to be diagnosed by their peers as experts O’Dell and Grayson 1998.

People who provided high exceptional technical knowledge have been found to enjoy better prestige in the workplace Kollock 1999. While this discussion suggests a positive courting among repute and social media by knowledge contributors, the dating may be contingent on pro sharing norms. When strong teamwork and collaboration norms prevail, knowledge contributors would possibly not require extrinsic blessings Nahapiet and Ghoshal 1998 equivalent to image if you want to give a contribution data. Under such circumstances, knowledge contributors are likely going to contribute their insight to social media no matter no matter if benefit as enhanced repute is absent. On any other hand, weak pro sharing norms could make reputation a notable spark for information contribution.

H1: With the boost of the extent of social media use by extension mavens, their reputation in the organization is increased. 2. 3. 2 Reciprocity and social media useReciprocity has been featured as a bonus for people to participate in social trade Blau 1964. It can serve as a motivational mechanism for folks to give a contribution to discretionary databases Connolly and Thorn 1990. Reciprocity can go about as benefit for information patrons since they expect future tips from others in lieu of their contributions Connolly and Thorn 1990; Kollock 1999.

Earlier research proposes that folks who share data in online groups put consider in reciprocity Wasko and Faraj 2000. Further, analysts have watched that folks who frequently helped people in virtual groups looked as if it would get help all the more immediately after they asked it Rheingold 2000. These arguments indicate a favorable courting between reciprocity and social media usage by knowledge contributors, however the courting may be contingent on pro sharing norms. At the point when pro sharing norms standards are solid, knowledg patrons may share their perception without a requirement for extraneous advantages Nahapiet and Ghoshal 1998 reminiscent of reciprocity. In such a local weather, information contributors are likely to contribute their information to social media even in the absence of reciprocity benefits.

Conversely, when pro sharing norms standards are frail, reciprocity may be a notable helper for data patronsH2: Individuals guided by a norm of reciprocity will give a contribution more beneficial responses to social media usage by data contributors2. 3. 3 Relationship building and social media useConstant et al. 1994 and others Blau 1967; Organ and Konovsky 1989 argue that at the point when two persons are influenced by their social and hierarchical settings, especially where unspecified agreeable yields, for instance, information are exchanged, the social exchange relationship is an immense determinant of their attitudes. Social exchange, particular from economic exchange, builds up o bonds of friendship with or possibly super appointment over others, and causes diffuse, unspecified duties Organ and Konovsky 1989.

The worry is essentially with the courting itself, and not really any extraneous advantage that will mainly take after Blau 1967. Along these lines, representatives who trust their common associations with others can decorate via their data sharing, and who are working based on their want equity and reciprocity Huber 2001, are probably going to have uplifting states of mind toward information sharing through social media. 2. 3. 4 Communication efficacy and Social media use:Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their inner communique.

When effectively carried out, such projects can have a dramatic impact on inner efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation Amy et al. 2014. Prior lookup shows that within a corporate cultural historical past with the characteristics of: high level of trustworthiness, appreciation of teamwork, data distribution, friendly and family ambience, corporate goals that are identified by personnel, plenty of based inner and outside communication channels, close bonds among colleagues; using SM– interior conversation platforms by employees already affectively dedicated to the agency, certainly and indirectly affects most of the work Allen and Meyer 1990. This connection is described as oblique as a result of affective organizational commitment AOC antecedents are affected only via SM–interior communique platforms’ impact on internal communication’s strategies. On the other hand, in the early days of SM–inside conversation platforms’ use, top managers’ embrace it more enthusiastically than employees as a result of they’re really preoccupied with verbal exchange and retain high expectations for internal conversation’s development in any case staff is fully carried out with SM–internal conversation platforms.

H4: The higher the particular person’s Communication efficacy, the better using Social media. 2. 3. 5 Enjoyment and use of Social mediaThis advantage is derived from the idea of altruism. Altruism exists when folks get inherent satisfaction from assisting other folks without anticipating something consequently Krebs 1975; Smith 1981. Despite the indisputable fact that there can be not very many examples of absolute altruism adding outright absence of self worry in the muse for a demonstration, relative selflessness where self concern assumes a minor part in propelling an illustration is more predominant Smith 1981.

Knowledge contributors may be inspired by relative altruism based on their desire to aid others Davenport and Prusak 1998. Earlier lookup demonstrates that data donors pick up success by showing their altruistic habits Wasko and Faraj 2000. Such fulfilment comes from their inherent satisfaction in aiding folks Ba et al. 2001; Constant et al. 1994; Constant et al.

1996. Knowledge givers who infer delight in aiding other people can be more disposed to contribute data to social media. The impact of delight in assisting other people via web based networking media utilization isn’t probably going to be contingent on generalized trust, pro sharing norms, or identification. H5a: Enjoyment in helping others is definitely related to social media usage by knowledge contributors2. 3.

6 Self development and use of social mediaSelf viability identifies with the impression of folks about what they can do with the aptitudes they have got Bandura 1986. At the point when folks share skill useful to the affiliation, they pick up trust as far as what they may be able to do and this brings the advantage of expanded self viability Constant et al. 1994. This belief can serve as a self motivational force for knowledge contributors to contribute data to social media Bock and Kim 2002; Kalman 1999. Knowledge self efficacy is customarily manifested in the type of people believing that their data may help to unravel job related complications Constant et al.

1996, get well work effectivity Ba et al. 2001, or make a difference to their organization Kollock 1999; Wasko and Faraj 2000. On any other hand, if individuals feel that they need learning it truly is helpful to the association, they’ll decay from contributing information to online networking on the grounds that they trust that their commitment can’t have a constructive end result for the association The effect of knowledge self efficacy on social media usage is not likely to be contingent on generalized trust, pro sharing norms, or id. H6: Self development is positively associated with scoial media usage by information contributors or extension experts. 2.

3. 7 Subjective norms and social media useA choice of studies proposed and proved the direct influence of subjective norms to user’s intention to use a system. The concept of subjective norm Ajzen, 1991; Fishein ; Ajzen, 1975 is frequently matched with social have an impact on Venkatesh, et al. , 2003 and social norms CITATION Tho91 l 1033 Thompson, Higgins, ; Howell, 1991. However, the notion of all of the constructs refers back to the individual’s habits it really is influenced by the way he believes other view them as a result of using a system Venkatesh, et al. , 2003, p.

451. Despite many research said the effect of subjective norms to system use is non tremendous in voluntary work placing and only massive in mandatory work putting, this study assumed field norms might need affect over extension professionals use of social media for his or her work purpose. Hene, it was proposed:H7: The better the subjective norm to share knowledge is, the better the intention to share information might be. 2. 3.

8 Control variablesAge may be an vital sign as far as making use of correspondence media, particularly for brand spanking new media like Facebook, twitter, E mail etc. Earlier investigations have proposed blended discoveries about the connection among age and utilization of media. Bhuiyan 1988 and Nuruzzaman 2003 contend that with the expansion of age, people’s slant to effort new things diminish. The overwhelming majority of the research discoveries on age and usage of social media proven that they either were of free or had poor relationships. This implies that age of the respondents do not possess any significant affect on their social media use to hunt and supply data to others.

Besides age, the direct effect of provider event to system use in work placing is never studied yet proposed as a moderator e. g. , Venkatesh, et al. , 2003. Nonetheless, age and service experience weren’t considered as predictor variables of ICT use but as control variables Fig.

2. 1. CHAPTER IIIMETHODOLOGYThis bankruptcy portrays the method and methods utilized as part of this study. This part is remoted into three areas. The basic area portrays the diagram of study outline. The second area depicts the size of variables.

At long last, the third area depicts the strategies applied in data analysis3. 1 Research Design3. 1. 1 Locale of the studyComilla region was purposively chosen as the investigation territory in any event for two reasons. To start with, the financial and cultivating state of this region was incredible to the scientist. Second, he had a decent access to the potential respondents.

Comilla has seventeen Upazilas. Nonetheless, contemplating the time and spending obstacle five Upazilas, in specific, Bramanpara, Comilla Sadar, Debidwar, Chandina and Burichong were arbitrarily chosen as the district of the study. 3. 1. 2 Population and sampling frameAs the study worry about utilization of social media by the extension professionals’ in agricultural data sharing, in an ideal world all the Upazila level extension laborers could be constitute the collection of inhabitants during this study.

However, as SAAOs are the experts who notably meet and trade developments to the ranchers, this study purposely considered them as the selection of inhabitants during this study. But both UAOs and AEOs also are included as respondent. Therefore, all the SAAOs, AEOs and UAOs in the chose five upazilas were constituted the population of the study. The list of all of the SAAOs, AEOs and UAOs of the chose upazilas were accumulated. Thus, a complete of 131 SAAOs, 15 AEOs and 5 UAOs were constituted the population of this study Table 3.

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1. Among them, five respondents were randomly chose for pre test. The rest of the SAAOs i. e. , 126 persons were regarded as the sample of this study. All the respondents were knowledgeable beforehand to collect the info.

However, based on their availability during the data assortment period 15th February, 2018 to 25th February, 2018, a complete of 126 respondents were interviewed. Table 3. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 1 Population and sample of this studyUpazilas Population Sample size Pre test sampleBramanpara31 27 3Comilla Sadar 26 19 0Debidwar32 29 2Chandina 29 23 0Burichong33 28 0Total 151 126 53. 1. 3 Instrument for data collectionSince the causes for study were to check the hypotheses and measure the variances, a cross sectional review technique was received for this study.

Henceforth, data was gathered utilising an arranged assembly plan. Remembering the goals, the study adjusted accredited estimation things from earlier investigations, at something point possible. The beforehand arranged interview schedule was pre tried and vital adjustments were completed. In most cases, closed form questions were utilized aside from target 3i. e. , complications faced by extension professionals to use social media’ an open shape query was controlled.

Approved estimation things of each construct with their literature sources were exhibited in an English version of the interview time table as joined in the Appendix A3. 1. 4 Variables of the studyFour variables were used for this study:Dependent variable: is a variable it truly is the end result or result or impact of various elements. This variable is commonly referred to as a measure or result variable. The estimation of the reliant variable relies upon the estimation of alternate factors, this is, autonomous factors. In this study, Exploration of intention to use of social media in agricultural information sharing by extension experts’ was regarded as the reliant variable.

Independent variable: is a variable that the expert can manage over or manage to foresee different factors i. e. , based variable. Hence, this variable is regularly called as indicator variable or causal variable. In an ordeal placing, a researcher needs to control the variable or acquaint one more variable with see its impact on the needy variable. In this study, seven unbiased variables were used.

These were: repute, reciprocity, courting constructing and communique efficacy extrinsic motivation and self development, enjoyment and subjective norms intrinsic motivationControl variable: is a variable that the researcher does not are looking to test in a study and hence she controls its effect on any other variables to be studied. Here, age, gender and service adventure were considered as the handle variables. 3. 2 Measurement of Variables3. 2. 1 Measurement of unbiased variables3.

2. 1. 1 ReciprocityThe reciprocity score of a respondent was computed on the premise of validated measurement scale of facilitating situation was followed from Venkatesh, et al. , 2003 and a five point rating scale starting from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ was used to capture respondents’ responses towards four statements. Items Score AssignedStrongly disagree 1Disagree 2Undecided 3Agree 4Strongly agree 5Reputation score was desperate by summing the scores of all the four statements. Thus, the score could range from 1 to 5, where 1 indicated the lesser level of contract and 5 indicated the better level of agreement3.

2. 1. 3 Relationship BuildingPerceived ease of use refers back to the extent to which a respondent identify use of ICTs will require less effort. The dimension items of this scale were adopted from Davis 1989. Respondents’ responses were captured by a 5 point rating scale ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’ as follows towards four statements.

Items Score AssignedStrongly disagree 1Disagree 2Undecided 3Agree 4Strongly agree 5Ease of use score was desperate by summing the scores of all the four items. Thus, the score could range from 4 to 20, where ‘4’ suggests strongly disagreement and ’20’ shows strongly agreement. 3. 2. 1.

4 Communication efficacyCommunication efficacy was measured by a respondent’s level of trust to achieve a job task by appearing chose four operations. The modified version of communique efficacy scales Compeau ; Higgins, 1995 was used for this occasion. The respondents’ responses were captured by utilizing a five point rating scale ranging ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’ as follows in opposition t four statements:Items Score AssignedStrongly disagree 1Disagree 2Undecided 3Agree 4Strongly agree 53. 2. 1.

5 EnjoymentScales of delight was adopted from Ajzen 1991. Responses were captured using a 5 point rating scale starting from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ which is shown as follows:Items Score AssignedStrongly disagree 1Disagree 2Undecided 3Agree 4Strongly agree 5The enjoyment score was dictated by summing the scores of all of the 4 things. The score during this way could extend from 4 to 20, where ‘4’ shows no impact of pleasure and ’20’ demonstrates high impact of delight to their usage of social media in sharing their knowledge3. 2. 1.

6 Self developmentScales of Self development aid was tailored from Hossain, et al. 2011. Self development was captured by using a 5 point rating scale starting from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’. 3. 2.

1. 7 Subjective normsScales of subjective norms were adopted from Ajzen 1991. Responses were captured using a 5 point rating scale ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ which is shown as follows:Items Score AssignedStrongly disagree 1Disagree 2Undecided 3Agree 4Strongly agree 5The subjective norm score was determined by summing the scores of all the 4 items. The score thus could range from 4 to 20, where ‘4’ suggests no have an impact on of subjective norms and ’20’ indicates high have an impact on of subjective norms to their use of ICTs in developing their potential. 3.

2. 1. 8 Extent of social media useExtent of social media use refers to the frequency of using social media for accomplishment of a task. The respondents’ responses were captured as follows:Items Extent of Use ScoreRead others’ posts only Frequently 2 3times/ weekOften 1time/weekOccasionally 4 5 times/ monthRarely 1time/ monthNot at all No use 43210Read and share others’ post only Frequently2 3times/ weekOften 1time/weekOccasionally 4 5times/ monthRarely 1time/ monthNot at all No use 43210Comment on others’ posts only Frequently 2 3times/ weekOften 1time/weekOccasionally 4 5 times/ monthRarely 1time/ monthNot at all No use 43210Post new data associated with my work Frequently 1 2 times/dayOften 1 thrice/weekOccasionally 5 6 times/monthRarely 1 three times/monthNot at all No use 43210Post photos and videos Frequently 1 2 times/dayOften 1 3 times/weekOccasionally 5 6 times/monthRarely 1 3 times/monthNot at all No use 43210Extent of social media use score was desperate by summing the scores of all of the 4 items. Thus, it could range from 0 to 16. Where ‘0’means no use of social media and ’16’ means commonly use of social media.

3. 2. 2 Measurement of dependent variableIntention to use social media by the agricultural extension experts was measured on the premise of opinion offered by the respondents. Based on the operationalization of the construct, a scale was evolved comprised of three statements. The respondents’ responses were captured using a 5 point scale 1 5 ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’.

Items Score AssignedStrongly disagree 1Disagree 2Undecided 3Agree 4Strongly agree 5The intention to use social media score of a respondent was obtained by adding the scores and it could range from 3 to 15, where ‘3’ suggests no intention to use social media and ’15’ suggests high intention to use social media. 3. 3 Data Analysis3. 3. 1 EditingRaw data were properly reviewed for omitting errors.

The researcher made a cautious scrutiny when she achieved an interview so that all data were included to facilitate coding and tabulation. Raw data were appropriately explored for omitting errors. The researcher made a watchful scrutiny when he comprehensive a gathering with the goal that each one data were integrated to encourage coding and tabulation. 3. 3.

4 Method of knowledge analysisData evaluation required two stages. To begin with, validation stage and second, result stage. The validation stage sets up the unwavering excellent and legitimacy of the size items. Four tests need to be performed to test the reliability and validity of the size model, inside consistency composite reliability, convergent validity common variance extracted, and discriminant validity and indicator reliability Hair, et al. , 2014.

Internal consistency is the value of Cronbach’s alpha which assumes that all of the signals have equal outer loading on the relative constructs. It is expected that the outer loading for each indicator should be above 0. 7. However, contemplating the explorative nature as well as the context, value equal to or better than 0. 65 was regarded as accepted. Internal consistency can also be measured by watching the price 0.

60 0. 70 of composite reliability of a latent variable. Convergenet validity shows whether the indicator can converge or share a high proportion of the adaptation of the constructs. Average Variance Extracted AVE is the typical degree of convergent validity which is the grand mean of the squared loadings of a construct’s alerts. A value better than 0. 50 is considered as a passable AVE score, which says that the construct explains more than half of the variance of its signals.

Discriminant validity shows the distinctiveness of one assemble from others and this will be tested by the cross loadings of the indicators. If the outer loadings of one indicator on the respective assemble are higher than all of its loadings on other constructs assure that the assemble has no discriminant validity difficulty. On the other hand, for indicator reliability, a bootstrapping a test that relies on random sampling with alternative technique needs to be carried out. If it shows that the indicator’s weight is statistically big, then the indicator may be retained in another way should be far from the model. To validate the size items and test the structural model, Partial Least Squares PLS based Structural Equation Modeling SEM was used for this study Hair, et al. , 2014.

Two elements were considered when selecting this modeling approach over basic statistical tools like SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences. First, PLS SEM is viewed as a second technology statistical tool over the 1st era tool like SPSS and therefore highly accepted to behavioral scientists and academics. Second, tool like SPSS is limited in its skill to degree multi level path model. As the theoretical model of this study contains six independent variables, one mediator variable, one dependent variable and two manage variables, the confounding effect of one variable on other variables cannot be captured by SPSS and hence, SmartPLS v. 2 program application was used to test the model of this study. Five 5% percent level of importance was used to check the value level of each speculation.

If the computed value of ?was equal to or greater than the designated level of significance, than the speculation was supported and it was concluded that there was a big contribution of the unbiased variables to the dependent variable. And if the computed value of ?is smaller than the designated level of importance than the hypotheses was not supported. Therefore, it assumes that there was no giant contribution of the independent variables to the dependent variable. The result of the reliability and validity tests got in Chapter Five. CHAPTER IVRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThis part shows the aftereffects of this investigation into five areas. To start with, chose attributes of the sample and a transparent dimension of this study are introduced.

Second, sample’s circulation in light of their watched scores under each size is exhibited. Third, reliability and validity of the dimension items took after by penalties of the arranged model are given. Finally, extension mavens’ problems regarding social media use in agricultural information sharing is mentioned. 4. 1 Respondent’s Characteristics and Descriptive StatisticsIn this part the respondent’s features and descriptive statistics are presented in Table 4. 1 and Table 4.

2. Variables were categorize on the idea of the possible score and age was categorize based on the category of Ministry of Youth and Sports Governments of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Table 4. 7 Female2318. 3 Age in yearsYoung up to 3537 29. 4 25 58 43.

10 10. 487Middle 36 5045 35. 9 Service event in yearsShort up to 1038 30. 2 2 38 20. 00 11.

587Medium 11 2028 22. 6 Table 4. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 2 Descriptive statistics of constructs used in this studyConstructs Possible range Observed range Mean Standard deviationMin Max Reciprocity 4 20 12 20 16. 62 1. 837Reputation 5 25 17 31 20.

71 2. 000Relationship Building 4 20 13 20 17. 36 1. 723Communication efficacy 4 20 14 20 16. 88 1.

372Enjoyment 4 20 8 19 16. 29 1. 645Self improvement 4 20 12 20 16. 57 1. 428Subjective Norms 4 20 13 20 16.

40 1. 227Use of social media 0 25 4 20 13. 92 4. 059Intention to use social media 3 15 9 15 13. 63 1. 563Table 4.

1 exhibits that majority of the respondents 81. 7% were male and fewer than one fifth 18. 3% were female. The mean of the respondents’ age was 43. 10 years with a standard deviation of 10. 487.

Based on the category offered by the Ministry of Youth and Sports Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, almost equal percentage of the respondents 29. 4 and 34. 9 percent were young and old aged while around remainder of them 35. 7 % were middle aged. Distribution of the respondents in accordance with their length of service were found almost identical with their age distribution with a mean of 20.

00 years. The maximum proportions 47. 6 percent of the respondents had long provider adventure while 30. 2 % had short and 22. 2 percent had medium carrier experience. 4.

2 Respondent’s Distribution based on the Salient Factors of extension Professionals’ intention to use social media. Low up to 7 score0 0 17. 36 1. 723Medium 8 14 score6 4. 8 High ;14 score120 95. 2 Total126 100Data in Table 4.

5 displays that only 4. 8 % of the respondents using social media as easy in comparison to the maximum 95. 2 percent of the respondents using social media for relationship constructing. Therefore, it can be concluded that the extent of using social media by extension professionals in information sharing was satisfactory. 4.

2. 4 Communication EfficacyThe accompanied Communication Efficacy scores of the respondents ranged from 14 20 with a mean of 16. 88 and the basic deviation of 1. 372. The respondents were labeled into following three classes based on the feasible range of facilitating condition 4 20 as shown in Table 4. 6.

Table 4. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 6 Distribution of the respondents in accordance with Communication EfficacyCategoriesFrequencyPercentMeanStd. Medium 8 14 score 4 3. 2 16. 27 1.

428High ;14 score 122 96. 8 Total 126 100The observed extent of Self improvement scores of the respondents ranged from 12 20 towards a possible scores of 4 20. The average of self development score was 16. 57 with a traditional deviation of 1. 428. The respondents were labeled into following three categories based on their self development conduct score as shown in Table 4.

9. Table 4. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 9 Distribution of the respondents in keeping with their Self development Table 4. 9 shows that majority of the respondents 96. 8 % having high accept as true with in comparison to rest of respondent 3.

2 percent had medium accept as true with that use of social media for his or her self development. Medium 8 14 score7 5. 6 16. 40 1. 227High ;14 score119 94. 4 Total131100Data in Table 4.

7 shows that the maximum share 94. 4 percent of the respondents possessed high subjective norms in using social media for job tasks while only 5. 6 % of the respondents possessed medium peer have an impact on and none of them possessed low peer affect. Therefore, it may be said that respondents’ social media use habits for engaging in a task was highly influenced by their peers’ affect. 4.

2. 8 Use of Social mediaThe followed use of social media scores of the respondents ranged from 4 20 with a mean of 13. 92 and the fundamental deviation of 4. 059. The respondents were categorised into following three categories based on their feasible range 0 25 of use of social media scores as shown in Table 4.

11. 4. 4 Results of the Structural ModelThe intention of this section was to observe the effect of 7 selected elements on exploration of intention to use social media by extension professionals’ in agricultural knowledge sharing. Multiple regression evaluation was used to check the contribution of the selected variables like reciprocity, reputation, relationship building, conversation efficacy, enjoyment, self improvement, subjective norms and use of social media in agricultural information sharing. Five percent 5% level of importance were used as the premise for rejection of a speculation.

A summary of the suggest hypotheses is provided in Table 4. 12. Table 4. 12 Multiple regression coefficients of the selected elements indicating contribution on intention to use social media in agricultural information sharingIndependent Variables Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. R2 FB Std. Error Beta Constant .

392 2. 220 . 177 . 860 . 291 6.

902Reciprocity . 143 . 075 . 168 NS 1. 914 .

058 Reputation . 156 . 073 . 199 2. 139 . 034 Relationship Building .

179 . 080 . 197 2. 223 . 028 Communication efficacy . 237 .

114 . 208 2. 081 . 040 Enjoyment . 317 .

094 . 333 3. 375 . 001 Self development . 259 . 141 .

237 NS 1. 839 . 068 Subjective Norms . 270 . 112 .

212 2. 416 . 017 Dependent Variable: Intention to use social mediaNSNon massive Significant at . 1% level of value Significant at 1% level of significanceTable 4. 13 Summary of the proposed hypothesesNo Hypothesis SupportedH1 Reciprocity is positively related to social media usage by data contributors under situations of weak pro sharing norms.

NoH2 With the enhance of the extent of social media use by extension experts, their reputation in the association is elevated. YesH3 The greater the anticipated reciprocal relationships are, the more favorable the mindset toward data sharing via social media YesH4 The higher the individual’s Communication efficacy, the better the use of Social media. YesH5 Enjoyment in aiding others is positively associated with social media usage by data contributors. YesH6 Self development is certainly associated with scoial media usage by information contributors or extension mavens NoH7 Extension mavens’ use of social media in agricultural data sharing is positively influenced by subjective norms of using social media. Yes4. 4.

1 Discussion of the research findingsA sum of seven hypotheses was proposed in this investigation, of which five speculations were reinforced. This phase gives the controversy of the important thing discoveries as takes after:4. 4. 1. 1 The Contribution of reputation in using social mediaExtent of repute use was found to be big predictor of using social media in agricultural information sharing Table 4.

12 which represent 19. 9% of the variance. The dating among these two constructs was also supported by respondents’ responses on repute building by the use of social media. Data in descriptive analysis said that a majority 100% of the respondents’ social media use as a highly effective medium for data sharing. 4. 4.

1. 4 The Contribution of enjoyment in using social mediaEnjoyment was found to be the third maximum contributor of the extent of social media use by extension experts to share information ?01. The structural linkage among enjoyment and user’s intention to use social media has been tested in many instances. The auxiliary linkage among enjoyment and client’s aim to utilize social media has been tried in numerous cases. That is, enjoyment is an vital assets of a framework without which client may abundant the framework to be utilized. At the point when a man finds a framework simple to make use of empower him to utilize the tool more.

Enjoyment is associated with the degree of simplicity related with using social media. Another conceivable clarification of this relationship may be on account of the extension officers were grasping web based social networking, not from a required placing so far DAE has not made it obligatory to use for their occupations. It is therefore concluded that as extension experts find a common interest or enjoyment to use that certainly impact their use of social media for agricultural data sharing4. 4. 1.

5 The Contribution of subjective norms in employing social mediaSubjective norms was accompanied to be a major factor of employing social media in agricultural data sharing Table 4. 12 which represent 21. 2% of the variance. Regardless of descriptive statistics of this study uncovered that reciprocity and self improvement were observed to be seen particularly strong for extension workers to utilize online networking social media more for their jobs, the way in which study didn’t display any measurably huge relationship among the concerned elements. This could be caused as a result of more potent effects of other predictors comparable to enjoyment, communication efficacy, and repute.

Therefore, extra investigation can be necessary to test the generalizability of this finding. CHAPTER VSUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONThe overarching aim of this study was to realize the have an effect on of intention level in social media use by extension mavens to share agriculture related information. The study followed a theoretical approach and based on ‘Social Exchange Theory’ Thibaut, et al. , 1959 incorporating with the idea of social media usage. According to the ‘Social Exchange Theory’ Thibaut, et al. , 1959 participants in digital communities expect mutual reciprocity that justifies their bills in terms of effort and time spent sharing intrinsic motivation their information.

Through close social interactions, extension laborers are in a position to increase the depth, breadth, and effectivity of mutual knowledge exchange. This study proposed a model which depicts extension mavens’ intention to use of social media which further contingent upon seven unbiased elements. Data were gathered using a cross sectional survey method and analyzed by PLS SEM using SmartPLS v2. 0. In this chapter, the summary of this study is provided.

5. 1. 1. 3 Relationship buildingJust 4. 8 % of the combination respondents of this investigation trust that a good relationship can be develop among the specialists by utilizing social media in agricultural information transferring. On the other, a dominant part rate 95.

2% of respondent emphatically trust that a decent dating can be develop among the many experts by utilizing web based social networking in agricultural data shifting. 5. 1. 1. 4 Communication efficacyBelow one tenth of the entire respondents 3.

2 % perceived medium followed by 96. 8 percent perceived high consider that using social media has a significant significance in enhance of communication efficacy. 5. 1. 1.

5 EnjoymentThe highest percentage 95. 2 % of the respondents possessed high level of belief that they use social media as for his or her private interest or enjoyment whereas only 4. 8 percent of the respondents possessed medium level of belief that they use social media as for his or her confidential hobby to join up job comparable queries. 5. 1. 1.

6 Self developmentThe most improved extent 96. 8 percent of the respondents had high state of conviction that they utilize web based social networking to accelerate the system of self development while just 3. 2 % of the respondents had a medium level of conviction that they utilize online networking to accelerate the system of self development5. 1. 1. 7 Subjective NormsThe most noteworthy extent 94.

4 % of the respondents had high companion impact and just 5. 6 percent of the respondents had a medium affiliate impact for their usage of online networking for work similar functions. The discovering demonstrates every one of the respondents was impacted by their partner bunches in using online networking for attaining work errands. 5. 1.

2 Results of the theoretical modelThere were seven hypotheses were proposed in the model. Five 5, out of 7 were found to be statistically huge while two hypotheses were found to be unsupported. A summary of the findings of the proposed hypotheses are supplied as follows:5. 1. 2. 1 Problems faced by extension professionals using social mediaProblems faced by extension experts using social media was identified by using a widely known qualitative data analytic tool, ‘thematic evaluation’ which revealed five key issues.

These were: high cost, loss of time, poor IT infrastructure, and access barrier and shortage motivation. 5. 2 ConclusionWhile basic ICTs were the weak ties for diffusion of innovation, today’s ICTs are bringing vast amount of data to rural groups. But among these, social media are unique due to the ability they offer for forming both strong and weak ties in verbal exchange. The society – the agricultural people, the sector level Extensionists, farmers – do not read journals; they read blogs, watch YouTube and use Facebook and Twitter and these are the mediums that reach them efficiently. These platforms offer incentives to every actor to speak online forming networks and starting up improvement.

Empowered by mobile technology, social media has a huge capability to revolutionize verbal exchange but its good fortune depends, to a massive extent, on the innovativeness of AEIS and grass root level organizations. Mobilizing actors in AIS to use social media has to be addressed first and raising recognition is a big problem. Moreover, without infrastructure, only information can do little or no. Further lookup into actual impact of social media on rural improvement after which scaling up are needed at local and global level. Extension is not well-nigh communicating but bringing behavioral change thus mere sharing posts and social media activism is not going to change much without practical movements.

A multi level approach and initiatives at institutional and particular person level in combination is had to make social media a fact in every sphere of agricultural extension and advisory amenities. Discoveries of the gift study and the logical interpretation of different colossal actualities incited the researcher to arrive the accompanying determinations:Reputation significantly added to the usage of web based social networking. In this fashion, one might say that reputation is among the vital signals of the degree of utilising online networking. Reputation shows the respondents’ conduct to use social media tools. As reputation is an extraneous inspiration, is one of the vital preconditions of web based social networking utilization. In this fashion, it may be inferred that higher reputation building goal may prompt higher usage of online networking which in swings prompt higher information sharing.

Communication efficacy had second maximum contribution to the extent of social media use. This facts cause the end that any arrangement made to enhance verbal exchange efficacy of the respondents would finally boost use of social media in agriculture. Enjoyment possessed the highest level of massive in using social media. In this way, one might say that enjoyment is among the crucial indicators of the degree of making use of social media. Enjoyment shows the respondents’ conduct to use social media tools. As Enjoyment is an intrinsic inspiration, is among the essential preconditions of web based social networking utilization.

Therefore, it may be concluded that higher enjoyment may prompt higher utilization of online networking which in swings prompt higher information sharing. The most noteworthy extent 94. 4 percent of the respondents had high accomplice impact and just 5. 6 % of the respondents had a medium affiliate impact for his or her utilization of online networking for work related functions. The finding demonstrates each one of the respondents was impacted by their accomplice bunches in making use of online networking for attaining work errands.

5. 3 RecommendationsFrom reviews and findings of the survey, it is clear that social media is fast fitting an essential component of agricultural verbal exchange and it is being simply accepted as the next big thing in AEIS. Though agricultural organizations are slowly adapting to the changing scenario, faster actions are required to better utilize social media. To overcome the demanding situations, a multipronged method is required at various levels:5. 3. 1 Recommendations for Individual levelExtensionists deserve to take personal initiative to use social media as part of their job in the norms of institutional checklist.

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2015 Knowledge management, social media and employee creativity, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 45, pp. 44–58. APPENDIX AEnglish Version of the Interview ScheduleDepartment of Agricultural Extension ; Information SystemSher e Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhaka 1207Interview Schedule for data assortment for the Research onUse of Social Media for Agricultural Knowledge Sharing by the Extension ProfessionalsThis interview schedule is entitled for a lookup study. Collected data will only be used for research aim and will be posted aggregatelySerial NoName of the respondentDesignationUpazila DistrictAge: Please mention your present age yearsGender: i Male ii FemaleService Experience: How long have you been working in the Extension Service yearsReciprocity Kankanhalli, et al. 2005: Please point out your degree of agreement or confrontation with the following statements.

No. Items Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree1. When I share any information concerning my work on social media, I believe I will acquire information from others besides 2. When I respond to someone’s queries for any information on social media, I expect someone also reply me when I am wanting data involving my work 3. When I help others by providing data through social media, I expect other can also help me when I need it 4. I know that other members may help me so it’s only fair to aid other members Reputation Kankanhalli, et al.

2005: Please point out your degree of agreement or confrontation with the following statementsNo. Items Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree1. Sharing knowledge via social media improves my image within the association 2. I earn appreciate from others by sharing data via social media 3. I feel that social media participation improves my status in the profession4.

People in the organization who share their knowledge through social media have more status than people who do not 5. When I share my information through social media, my colleagues praise me Relationship Building Bock, et al. 2005: Please mention your degree of agreement or confrontation with the following statementsNo. Items?Strongly Disagree DisagreeUndecided Agree Strongly Agree1. My data sharing would improve the ties among current members in the association and myself 2. My knowledge sharing would get me well familiar with new members in the association 3.

My knowledge sharing would expand the scope of my association with other members in the organization 4. My knowledge sharing would create strong relationships with members who have common pastimes in the association Communication efficiency: Please point out your degree of contract or war of words with the following statements. No. Items Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided AgreeStrongly Agree1. I can easily share my information via social media 2. I can effortlessly speak with others about any difficulty related my work 3.

I think it is the foremost way to communicate with people whom I work with 4. I think it is a low priced medium to talk Enjoyment Kankanhalli, et al. 2005: Please point out your degree of contract or disagreement with here statements. No. Items Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided AgreeStrongly Agree1.

I feel good to share data via social media 2. I enjoy helping others by my sharing knowledge through social media 3. Sharing my data with others through social media give me exhilaration 4. It feels good to help a person else by sharing data via social media Self improvement Kankanhalli, et al. 2005: Please point out your degree of contract or confrontation with here statements.

No Items Not at all Rarely Occasionally Often Frequently1. Read others’ posts only No use 1time/ month 4 5 times/ month 1time/week 2 3times/ week2. Read and share others’ post only No use 1time/ month 4 5 times/ month 1time/week 2 3times/ week3. Comment on others’ posts only No use 1time/ month 4 5 times/ month 1time/week 2 3times/ week4. Post new data related to my work No use 1time/ month 4 5 times/ month 1time/week 2 3times/ week5.

Post photos and videos No use 1time/ month 4 5 times/ month 1time/week 2 3times/ weekIntention to continue use social media: Please point out your degree of contract or confrontation with here statementsNo. Items Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree1. I are looking to proceed to share information via social media 2. I will proceed to use social media for my work aim 3. I will enhance my use of social media for sharing data related to my work Please point out the issues you faced at least two for sharing work related information using social media.