Change management: understanding, function, phase and stages in the company

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Change management: understanding, function, phase and stages in the company

In order for us to be able to understand one of these management terms, we must first know every meaning of the word management and change. Simply put, management is a process of managing or forming something, while changes are an effort, process, or transformation of something to be another matter.

The term change change is often used in the management of the company or organization to be one of the important success factors in any business.

Understanding of change management

Change Management or Management of Change is an effort and a structured and systematic approach that is utilized to help individuals, teams or organizations by applying the means, resources and knowledge in realizing changes in conditions now towards a condition that is better efficiently and effectively To minimize the impact of the change process.

Change management is a form of business carried out to manage the entire resulting resulting due to changes in a company. Change management is a tool, process, and also the technique for managing humans on the side of the change in achieving the results needed and in order to realize changes effectively on a broader team, individuals and systems.

In essence, change management is a process that adopts a management approach, namely planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling to make a change in a company. Change management is carried out to produce business solutions needed to be more successful in a way that is also more organized through the method of managing the impact of changes in those in it.

Some experts define change management as follows:

  • Coffman and Lutes (2007) explain that change management is a structured approach and is used to help teams, individuals or organizations for changes from current conditions to better conditions.
  • Winardi (2011) in his book explained that change management is an effort carried out by managers to manage change more effectively, in which requires knowledge related to motivation, groups, leadership, conflict, and communication.
  • Wibowo (2012) argues that change management is a system that is made systematically in implementing facilities, resources and knowledge needed in influencing changes in those who will be affected by the process.
  • While Nauheimer (2007) said that change management is a process, engineering, and tools used to manage the process of changes to the individual side to achieve a result needed and to apply change more effectively with a broader agent, system, and team.

Change management approach

Davidson (2005) in his book said that cultural differences in an organization would affect the preparation of the change plans to be carried out appropriately. Companies can choose one of the four change management approaches, namely a rational-empirical approach, a normative-reedy approach, power-coercive approach and environment-adaptive approach

The following is an explanation of the four approaches.

  • Rational-empirical approach
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The rational-empirical approach is used with the basic belief that people behavior can be predicted and they will pay special attention to their own interests. By understanding these behaviors, it will provide a change manager to a strategy that is useful for stepping.

Some components of this approach believe that all target changes will be covered by a variety of myths, ignorance, truth, although still maintaining its rationality. The entire target of the change will follow themselves if it is said to them which means, and often they do not understand what is best for them.

They will change by themselves when they receive more informative, effective communication and when there is incentives on the changes they value more adequate.

  • Normative reactive approach

This approach will focus more on how a change manager is able to influence or behave in a variety of certain ways, so that managers’ members are able to make changes. Basically, humans will change when there is a separate company that change is for the best interest.

These changes will be best prepared when one person in the group includes changes and adheres to the value system and the belief of the group.

  • Power-coercive approach

This approach will force the management of changes to carry out the way arbitrarily by some parties naively by some of the others, and often become standard forms in change management. The main premise of this approach is that those who are basically obedient will be ready to do anything ordered by without or a little effort in convincing.

In this case, make people to change on the basis of enforcement of authority, threats, or sanctions for poor performance. This approach can also be called an oppressor strength approach. This approach has a big risk and the potential for his return is very large.

  • Environment-adaptive approach

The main premise used in this management approach is that even though they change based on instinct, they try to avoid all forms of losses, so they actually have the ability to adapt to various new conditions and situations.

Types of change management

Harischandra (2007) explained that there were three types of changes in an organization based on their nature, namely:

  • Smooth incremental changes, changes will occur slowly, systematically, and can be predicted and include or all series of changes in speeds that tend to be constant.
  • Bumpy Incremental Change, is a change that has a relatively calm period and occasionally interrupted by accelerating change movements by triggered by organizational environmental changes and can also come from internal, such as the demands in improving the efficiency and improvement of work methods.
  • Discontinuous Change, is a change marked by a rapid shift against the structure, culture, strategy and all three simultaneously. This change is more revolutionary and also fast.
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Phase and Stages of Change Management

Haines (2005) say there are several phases that can be taken in making change management, namely:

  • Phase A: Positioning Value (Determining Strategic Position). This phase is a stage in a system of thinking where the company’s strategic destination or position can be explained clearly. This position will be achieved in a change of company or organization.
  • Phase B: Measures Goals (Measuring Goals). This phase will determine the various sizes and mechanisms needed to assess whether the purpose can or have been achieved.
  • Phase C: Assessment Strategy (Strategy Assessment). In this phase will be determined the gap between the current situation with the situation that is desirable, so that it can be determined policy to achieve the entire situation and the conditions are better.
  • Phase D: Actions Levels (activity changes). This phase is the phase of implementation and further explanation will be integrated strategies that all activities, processes, relationships and changes needed to reduce the gap or to implement the defined goals in Phase A.
  • Phase E: Environment Scan (identification of the external environment). This phase will carry out the entire identification of the external environment that is capable of influencing change. Results of identification will provide direction and changes that will be made.

Conclusion

Change Management or Management of Change is an effort and a structured and systematic approach that is utilized to help individuals, teams or organizations by applying the means, resources and knowledge in realizing changes in conditions now towards a condition that is better efficiently and effectively To minimize the impact of the change process.

In essence, change management is a process that adopts a management approach, namely planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling to make a change in a company.

Davidson in his book said that cultural differences in an organization would affect the preparation of the plan to be carried out appropriately. Companies can choose one of the four change management approaches, namely a rational-empirical approach, a normative-rated approach, a power-coercive approach and an environment-adaptive approach.

The types of change management that can be chosen by the company is the Smooth Incremental Change, Bumpy Incremental Change, and Discontinuous Change. While the phase-phase that can be chosen is positioning value, measures goal, assessment strategy, level-level Actions, and Environment Scan.

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